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Lewis : consuetudo

consuetudo, consŭētūdo, ĭnis, f. consuesco. A being accustomed, custom, habit, use, usage. In gen. (very freq. in all periods, esp. in prose): exercitatio ex quā consuetudo gignitur, Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 358: dicunt ... consuetudine quasi alteram naturam effici, id. Fin. 5, 25, 74: ad parentium consuetudinem moremque deducimur, id. Off. 1, 32, 118; id. Mil. 1, 1; id. Clu. 38, 96: majorum, id. Div. in Caecil. 21, 67; cf. id. ib. 2, 5: Siculorum ceterorumque Graecorum, id. Verr. 2, 2, 52, § 129; id. de Or. 2, 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 1, 45; cf. id. ib. 1, 43: eorum dierum, id. ib. 2, 17: non est meae consuetudinis rationem reddere, etc., Cic. Rab. Perd. 1, 1: con suetudo mea fert, id. Caecin. 29, 85: consuetudinem tenere, etc., id. Phil. 1, 11, 27: haec ad nostram consuetudinem sunt levia, Nep. Epam. 2, 3: contra morem consuetudinemque civilem aliquid facere, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148: quod apud Germanos ea consuetudo esset, ut, etc., Caes. B. G. 1, 50; cf. with ut, id. ib. 4, 5: cottidianae vitae, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 42: virtutem ex consuetudine vitae sermonisque nostri interpretemur, Cic. Lael. 6, 21; cf.: vitae meae, id. Rab. Perd. 1, 2; and sermonis, id. Fat. 11, 24; Quint. 1, 6, 45: communis sensūs, Cic. de Or. 1, 3, 12: jam in proverbii consuetudinem venit, id. Off. 2, 15, 55: victūs, id. Att. 12, 26, 2; Caes. B. G. 1, 31: otii, Quint. 1, 3, 11 al.: peccandi, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 76, § 176; Quint. 7, 2, 44: splendidior loquendi, Cic. Brut. 20, 78: loquendi, Quint. 1, 6, 43; 11, 1, 12: dicendi, Cic. Mur. 13, 29; Quint. 2, 4, 16: docendi, id. 2, 5, 2: vivendi, id. 1, 6, 45: immanis ac barbara hominum immolandorum, Cic. Font. 10, 21; cf.: classium certis diebus audiendarum, Quint. 10, 5, 21 al.: indocta, Cic. Or. 48, 161: mala, * Hor. S. 1, 3, 36: assidua, Quint. 1, 1, 13: longa, id. 2, 5, 2: vetus, id. 1, 6, 43: communis, id. 11, 1, 12; 12, 2, 19: vulgaris, id. 2, 13, 11; Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 248: bene facere jam ex consuetudine in naturam vortit, Sall. J. 85, 9: omnia quae in consuetudine probantur, generally, Cic. Ac. 2, 24, 75: negant umquam solam hanc alitem (aquilam) fulmine exanimatam. Ideo armigeram Jovis consuetudo judicavit, the general opinion, Plin. 10, 3, 4, § 15.

With prepp., ex consuetudine, pro consuetudine, and absol. consuetudine, according to or from custom, by or from habit, in a usual or customary manner, etc.: Germani celeriter ex consuetudine suā phalange factā impetus gladiorum exceperunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 52; so with ex, Sall. J. 71, 4; 85, 9; Quint. 2, 5, 1; Suet. Ner. 42 al.: pro meā consuetudine, according to my custom, Cic. Arch. 12, 32: consuetudine suā Caesar sex legiones expeditas ducebat, Caes. B. G. 2, 19; 2, 32: consuetudine animus rursus te huc inducet, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 41: huc cum se consuetudine reclinaverunt, Caes. B. G. 6, 27 fin.; so id. ib. 7, 24, 2; Sall. J. 31, 25 al.—Less freq.: praeter consuetudinem, contrary to experience, unexpectedly (opp. praeter naturam), Cic. Div. 2, 28, 60: plures praeter consuetudinem armatos apparere, contrary to custom, Nep. Hann. 12, 4; cf.: contra consuetudinem, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 148: supra consuetudinem, Cels. 2, 2.

Esp. Customary right, usage as a common law: (jus) constat ex his partibus: naturā, lege, consuetudine, judicato ... consuetudine jus est id, quod sine lege aeque ac si legitimum sit, usitatum est, Auct. Her. 2, 13, 19; Cic. Inv. 2, 54, 162: consuetudine jus esse putatur id, quod voluntate omnium sine lege vetustas comprobavit, id. ib. 2, 22, 67; Varr. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 7, 601; Cic. Caecin. 8, 23; id. Div. in Caecil. 2, 5; Dig. 1, 3, 32.

In gram. (instead of consuetudo loquendi; cf. supra), a usage or idiom of language, Varr. L. L. in 8th and 9th books on almost every page; Cic. Or. 47, 157; Quint. 1, 6, 3; 1, 6, 16; 2, 5, 2.—Hence, In Col. for language in gen.: consuetudini Latinae oeconomicum Xenophontis tradere, Col. 12, praef. § 7: nostra (opp. Graeca), id. 6, 17, 7.

Social intercourse, companionship, familiarity, conversation (freq. and class; in an honorable sense most freq. in Cic.). In gen.: (Deiotarus) cum hominibus nostris consuetudines, amicitias, res rationesque jungebat, Cic. Deiot. 9, 27; so in plur.: victūs cum multis, id. Mil. 8, 21; and in sing.: victūs, id. Or. 10, 33: domesticus usus et consuetudo est alicui cum aliquo, id. Rosc. Am. 6, 15; cf. id. Fam. 13, 23, 1: consuetudine conjuncti inter nos sumus, id. Att. 1, 16, 11: consuetudine ac familiaritate, id. Quint. 3, 12; so with familiaritas, id. Fam. 10, 3, 1: dare se in consuetudinem, id. Pis. 28, 68: insinuare in alicujus consuetudinem, id. Fam. 4, 13, 6; cf.: immergere se in consuetudinem alicujus, id. Clu. 13, 36: epistularum, epistolary correspondence, id. Fam. 4, 13, 1: nutrimentorum, community, Suet. Calig. 9.

In partic., intercourse in love, in an honorable, and more freq. in a dishonorable sense, a love affair, an amour, love intrique, illicit intercourse, Ter. And. 3, 3, 28; id. Hec. 3, 3, 44; Suet. Tib. 7; id. Ner. 35; Ter. And. 1, 1, 83; 1, 5, 44; 2, 6, 8; Liv. 39, 9, 6 and 7; Quint. 5, 11, 34; Suet. Tit. 10 al.

So also freq.: consuetudo stupri, Sall. C. 23, 3; Suet. Calig. 24; id. Oth. 2; Curt. 4, 10, 31.