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Lewis : aemulatio

aemulatio, aemŭlātĭo, ōnis, f. aemulor, an assiduous striving to equal or excel another in any thing, emulation (it denotes rather the mental effort, while imitatio regards more the mode of action; but rivalitas is a jealous rivalry, and therefore used only in a bad sense, while aemulatio is employed both in a good and bad sense) Cic. thus explains this word: aemulatio dupliciter illa quidem dicitur, ut et in laude et in vitio nomen hoc sit; nam et imitatio virtutis aemulatio dicitur ... et est aemulatio aegritudo, si eo, quod concupierit, alius potiatur, ipse careat, Cic. Tusc. 4, 8, 17. So, In a good sense, emulation: laudis, Nep. Att. 5; Vell. 1, 17: gloriae, Just. praef.; Tac. A. 2, 44, id Agr. 21; Suet. Calig. 19; id. Tib. 11: secundum aemulationem, in zeal, Vulg. Phil. 3, 6.—Transf., of the imitation of nature in painting: pictura fallax est et in aemulatione naturae multum degenerat transcribentium sors varia, Plin. 25, 2, 4, § 8.

In a bad sense, jealousy, envy, malevolence, δυσζηλία : aemulatio vitiosa, quae rivalitati similis est, Cic. Tusc. 4, 26, 56: infensa, Tac. A. 13, 19: municipalis, id. H. 3, 57: adversariorum, Suet. Ner. 23; cf. id. 33: aemulatio nasci tur ex conjunctione, alitur aequalitate, exardescit invidiā, cujus finis est odium, Plin. Pan. 84 al.: ad aemulationem eum provocaverunt, to jealousy (said of God), Vulg. Psa. 77, 58. contentiones, aemulationes, rivalries, ib. 2 Cor, 12, 20.