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Lewis : dulcis

dulcis, dulcis, e, adj. from gulcis, by dissimilation; cf. ten-ebrae from root tam-; root in Sanscr. gul-jam, sweetness; Gr. γλυκύς, γλυκερός, sweet, sweet (very freq.; cf.: suavis, venustus, jucundus, gratus, acceptus, amoenus, etc.). Lit., opp. amarus: (animal) sentit et dulcia et amara, Cic. N. D. 3, 13; cf. Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 72: mel, id. Asin. 3, 3, 24; id. Truc. 2, 4, 20; cf.: liquor mellis, Lucr. 1, 938; 4, 13: aqua, id. 6, 890: poma, id. 5, 1377; Hor. S. 2, 5, 12: vinum, id. C. 3, 12, 1; cf. merum, id. ib. 3, 13, 2: dolium, id. Epod. 2, 47: olivum, id. S. 2, 4, 64: sapor, id. C. 3, 1, 19 et saep.—Comp.: uva, Ov. M. 13, 795.—Sup.: panis, Plin. 18, 10, 20, § 92 et saep.—Hence, Subst. and heterocl., dulcia, ōrum, n., sweet cakes, honey-cakes, sugar-cakes (late Lat.), Vop. Tac. 6; Lampr. Heliog. 26; 31; Prud. Psych. 429.

Trop., agreeable, delightful, pleasant, charming, soft, flattering. In gen.: dulcia atque amara apud te sum elocutus omnia, Plaut. Ps. 2, 4, 2; cf. id. ib. 1, 1, 61; id. Truc. 1, 2, 78: vita, Lucr. 2, 997; cf.: lumina vitae, id. 5, 989: solacia, vitae, id. 5, 21: orator, Cic. Off. 1, 1, 3; cf. of orators or writers, Quint. 10, 1, 77; 73; 12, 10, 44; cf. also: non quo ea (oratione) Laelii quicquam sit dulcius, Cic. Brut. 21, 83: genus dicendi, Quint. 2, 8, 4: carmen, id. 12, 10, 33: poëmata, Hor. A. P. 99 et saep.: nomen libertatis, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 63; cf. id. Att. 15, 13, 3: auditu nomen, Liv. 24, 21, 3: amores, Hor. C. 1, 9, 15: otium, id. Epod. 1, 8: fortuna, id. C. 1, 37, 11: dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, Hor. C. 3, 2, 13.—With dat.: mensae dulcis herili canis, Val. Fl. 7, 130.—Prov.: dulce etiam fugias, fieri quod amarum potest, Pub. Syr. 144 Rib. —Sup.: epistola, Cic. Att. 15, 13, 4: quod in amicissimo quoque dulcissimum est, id. Lael. 23 fin. al.

In partic. of friends, lovers, etc., friendly, pleasant, agreeable, charming, kind, dear: amici (opp. acerbi inimici), Cic. Lael. 24 fin.; cf.: amicitia remissior esse debet et liberior et dulcior, id. ib. 18 fin.: liberi, Hor. Epod. 2, 40; cf. nata, id. S. 2, 3, 199: alumnus, id. C. 3, 23, 7; id. Ep. 1, 4, 8.—Hence, in addressing a person: optime et dulcissime frater, Cic. Leg. 3, 11; cf.: dulcissime Attice, id. Att. 6, 2, 9: mi dulcissime Tiro, Cic. Fil. Fam. 16, 21, 2: dulcis amice, Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 12: dulce decus meum, id. C. 1, 1, 2.—Absol.: quid agis, dulcissime rerum? Hor. S. 1, 9, 4.

Hence, adv. (acc. to II.), agreeably, delightfully. dulcĭter, Cic. Fin. 2, 6, 18; Quint. 1, 10, 24; 4, 2, 62; 9, 4, 14; 12, 10, 71.

dulce, Cat. 51, 5; Hor. C. 1, 22, 23; 24; id. Ep. 1, 7, 27; Stat. S. 3, 4, 8; id. Th. 4, 274.

Comp.: dulcius spirare, Quint. 12, 10, 27; Prop. 1, 2, 14.

Sup.: dulcissime scripta, Cic. Brut. 19, 77.