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Lewis : durus

durus, dūrus, a, um, adj. etym. dub.; cf. Sanscr. root dhar, to fix, confirm, hard. Lit. Orig. as affecting the sense of feeling: et validi silices ac duri robora ferri, Lucr. 2, 449; so, silex, Verg. A. 6, 471: ferrum, Hor. C. 3, 11, 31: cautes, Verg. A. 4, 366; Ov. M. 4, 672: bipennes, Hor. C. 4, 4, 57: ligones, id. Epod. 5, 30: aratrum, id. S. 1, 1, 28: compes, id. Epod. 4, 4: pellis, Lucr. 6, 1195; Verg. G. 3, 502: arva, id. ib. 2, 341; cf. cutis, Ov. M. 8, 805: alvus, Cels. 6, 18, 9; Hor. S. 2, 4, 27: aqua, hard, i. e. containing much earthy matter, Cels. 2, 30 fin.; cf. muria, saturated with salt, Col. 6, 30 fin.; 12, 6, 1 et saep., v. muria: dumeta, i. e. rough, Ov. M. 1, 105 et saep.: gallina, tough, not yet boiled tender, Hor. S. 2, 4, 18; cf.: fungi, qui in coquendo duriores fient, Plin. 22, 23, 47, § 99 et saep.

Sup.: ladanum durissimum tactu, Plin. 26, 8, 30, § 48; cf.: durissimus tophus vel carbunculus, Col. 3, 11, 7 et saep.—As subst.: dūrum, i, n. E duro (sc. ligno), of the hardened wood of the vine, Col. 3, 6, 2; 3, 10, 15; 21 et saep.; cf. duramentum.

Durum cacare, Mart. 3, 89, 2.

Transf. As affecting the sense of taste: vinum, opp. suavis, hard, harsh, Pall. Oct. 14, 5; cf.: sapor Bacchi, Verg. G. 4, 102: acetum, Ser. Samm. 40 and 351.

As affecting the ear: vocis genera permulta: ... grave acutum, flexibile durum, Cic. N. D. 2, 58, 146; cf. Quint. 11, 3, 15 and 32.—Hence, in rhet., hard, rough (cf. asper, II.): aspera et dura et dissoluta et hians oratio, Quint. 8, 6, 62: consonantes, id. 11, 3, 35: syllabae, id. 12, 10, 30: verba, id. 8, 3, 32 sq.; cf. id. 1, 5, 72: compositio, id. 9, 4, 142. Trop. Opp. to cultivated, rough, rulde, uncultivated: Q. Aelius Tubero ut vita sic oratione durus, incultus, horridus, Cic. Brut. 31; cf.: (Stoici) horridiores evadunt, asperiores, duriores, et oratione et moribus, id. Fin. 4, 28, 78; id. Mur. 29: Attilius poëta durissimus, id. Att. 14, 20, 3: C. Marius, qui durior ad haec studia videbatur, id. Arch. 9, 19; cf. Quint. 10, 1, 93; 8 prooem. § 26; Hor. S. 1, 4, 8 al.: pictor durus in coloribus, Plin. 35, 11, 40, § 137; cf. Quint. 12, 10, 7: Fauni, gens duro robore nata, Verg. A. 8, 315; cf.: terrea progenies duris caput extulit arvis, id. G. 2, 341; cf. also Stat. Th. 4, 276 sq.; Ov. Tr. 3, 11, 8.

But sometimes as a praiseworthy quality, opp. to soft, weakly, hardy, vigorous (esp. freq. in poets): fortes et duri Spartiatae, Cic. Tusc. 1, 43; cf.: Ligures, durum in armis genus, Liv. 27, 48: durum genus experiensque laborum, hardy, Ov. M. 1, 414: unde homines nati, durum genus, Verg. G. 1, 63 (cf. λᾶας and λαός, Pind. Ol. 9, 71): gens dura atque aspera cultu, a hardy race, id. A. 5, 730: genus humanum durius, tellus quod dura creāsset, Lucr. 5, 926: Dardanidae, Verg. A. 3, 94: Hannibal, Hor. C. 2, 12, 2: Iberia, id. ib. 4, 14, 50: vindemiator, id. S. 1, 7, 29; cf.: ilia messorum, id. Epod. 3, 4: juvenci, Ov. M. 3, 584 et saep.

Opp. to morally mild, gentle, harsh, rough, stern, unyielding, unfeeling, insensible, obstinate: quis se tam durum agrestemque praeberet, qui, etc., Cic. Or. 43, 148; cf.: quis nostrum animo tam agresti et duro fuit, ut? etc., id. Arch. 8: neque sunt audiendi, qui virtutem duram et quasi ferream esse quandam volunt, id. Lael. 13 fin.; ingenio esse duro atque inexorabili, Ter. Ph. 3, 2, 12: satis pater durus fui, id. Heaut. 3, 1, 30; cf. id. Ad. 1, 1, 39; Cic. Cael. 16; Hor. S. 1, 2, 17: Varius qui est habitus judex durior, Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62: cf. Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 4: mala vel duri lacrimas motura Catonis, Luc. 9, 50: duriorem se praebere alicujus miserae et afflictae fortunae, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13 A (cf. opp. at the end of the letter: se placabiliorem praebere): duri hominis vel potius vix hominis videtur, periculum capitis inferre multis, Cic. Off. 2, 14, 50; Hor. C. 4, 1, 7: quid nos dura refugimus aetas? id. ib. 1, 35, 34: ōs durum, shameless, impudent, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 36 Ruhnk.; Cic. Quint. 24 fin.; Ov. M. 5, 451: cor, Vulg. Sirach, 3, 27 et saep. Of the austerity of the Stoic mode of living, v. above, A.

Of things, hard, severe, toilsome; troublesome, burdensome, disagreeable; adverse, unfortunate: opulento homini hoc servitus dura est, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 12; so, servitus, Cic. Rep. 1, 44; 2, 25; cf. lex, Plaut. Merc. 4, 6, 1: condicio, Cic. Rab. Post. 6 fin.: provincia, Ter. Ph. 1, 2, 23; cf. partes, id. Eun. 2, 3, 62; Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8 A: dolor, Lucr. 3, 460: labor, id. 5, 1272: subvectiones, Caes. B. G. 7, 10, 1: venatus, Ov. M. 4, 307: dura cultu et aspera plaga, Liv. 45, 30 fin.: durissimo tempore anni, Caes. B. G. 7, 8, 2; cf. id. B. C. 3, 25, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 5 fin.: morbum acrem ac durum, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 119; cf. valetudo, Hor. S. 2, 2, 88: dolores, Verg. A. 5, 5: frigus, Plaut. Men. 5, 6, 10: fames, Hor. S. 1, 2, 6: pauperies, id. C. 4, 9, 49: causa, Lucr. 3, 485; Quint. 4, 1, 25; Hor. S. 1, 10, 26: nomen (opp. molle), Cic. Off. 1, 12: verbum, id. Brut. 79, 274: propositio, Quint. 4, 5, 5 et saep.: De. Etiamne id lex coëgit? Ph. Illud durum, Ter. Ph. 2, 1, 8; so in the neutr. sing., Quint. 11, 1, 85; 12, 1, 36; Hor. S. 1, 9, 42 et saep.; cf. ellipt.: non vanae redeat sanguis imagini ... Durum: sed levius fit patientia, etc., Hor. C. 1, 24, 19. In plur. subst.: dura, ōrum, n., hardships, difficulties: siccis omnia dura deus proposuit, Hor. C. 1, 18, 3; id. Ep. 2, 1, 141; Sen. Oedip. 208; Verg. A. 8, 522: ego dura tuli, Ov. M. 9, 544 al. (In fem. plur. ellipt., sc. partes, Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 22 very dub.).

Comp.: hi, si quid erat durius, concurrebant, if any unusual difficulty occurred, Caes. B. G. 1, 48, 6; 5, 29, 6; id. B. C. 3, 94, 6.—Adv. posit. in two forms: dūrĭter and dūre. (Acc. to 1. A.) Hardly: juga premunt duriter colla (boum), Vitr. 10, 8.—Comp.: durius, Vitr. 10, 15 fin.— (Acc. to II. A.-C.) Hardly, stiffly, awkwardly: membra moventes Duriter, Lucr. 5, 1401: duriter, Auct. Her. 4, 10, 15; Gell. 17, 10, 15: dure, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 66; Quint. 9, 4, 58; 10, 2, 19; Gell. 18, 11, 2.—Comp., Ov. R. Am. 337; Hor. S. 2, 3, 22; Quint. 8, 6, 24; 9, 4, 15; 117.

Hardily, rigorously, austerely: vitam parce ac duriter agebat, Ter. And. 1, 1, 47; id. Ad. 1, 1, 20; Novius ap. Non. 512.

Harshly, roughly, sternly: quam tibi ex ore orationem duriter dictis dedit, Enn. Trag. v. 348 Vahl.: duriter, Afran. Com. v. 251 Rib.; Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 28.

Comp., Cic. Lig. 6; id. Att. 1, 1, 4; id. Fam. 11, 27, 7; Caes. B. C. 1, 22 fin.; Tac. Agr. 16; id. A. 3, 52; Sen. Ep. 8; Vulg. Gen. 42, 7.—Sup., Hadrian. in Dig. 47, 14, 1.

Hardly, unfavorably, unfortunately: durius cadentibus rebus, Suet. Tib. 14 fin.