In the nominative forms: aedes, apes, canes, etc. (for aedis, apis, canis, etc. v. h. vv.).
In the dative forms: morte, jure dicundo, Dijove, Victore, etc. (cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 192 sq.; and Quint. 1, 4, 17).
In the nominatives in es, whose genitive has ĭtis.—（ ε ) In the nominatives from stems ending in c, b, p, t, n, etc., as, pollex, caelebs, princeps, comes, flumen, from pollic-, caelib-, princip-, comit-, flumin-; and ( ζ ) In the old and partly vulgar manner of writing and pronouncing: CEPET, EXEMET, NAVEBOS (Colum. Rostr.), FVET, DEDET, TEMPESTATEBVS, TIBE (Epit. of the Scipios), COMPROMESISE (S. C. de Bacch.), MENERVA, MAGESTER, HERE, VEA, VELLA, etc. (Quint. 1, 4, 8, and 17; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 14; cf. Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 46). In the earliest period (before Plautus) ĕ was found in many words in which ĭ afterwards took its place; as: semul, fuet, mereto, tempestatebus, etc.
( η ) It is prob. too that the abl. ĕ of the third declension proceeded from ī (or id); cf. Neue, Formenl. 1, 239 sqq.; Corss. Ausspr. 2, 241 sq. It less freq. happens that o and u pass over into ĕ, as vello, ocellus, verto, vertex, vester, compared with vulsi, oculus, vorto, vortex, voster: generis from genus, societas from socius, etc.; and even for long u we have ĕ in dejĕro and pejĕro, from jūro. The stem vowel o is weakened to ĕ in the vocative of nouns in us of the second declension; ĕ also represents o in the perf. and in pass. forms, such as scripsere, conabare, conabere, from scripserunt, conabaris, conaberis; in the future forms attinge, dice, facie, recipie, from attingam, dicam, faciam, recipiam (see under dico init.); in the forms mage, pote, from magis, potis, etc.; it is inserted for euphony in the nom. of many nouns and adjj whose stems end in r preceded by a mute, as ager, aper, liber, aeger, ruber, sacer, etc. The vowel e is suppressed in the imperatives dic, duc, fac, fer, in the anteclass infinitive biber (from bibere); in the vocative of the second declension of nouns in ius, as Gai, geni, fili, canteri, columbari, mantuari, volturi, mi (cf. Freund in Jahn's Neue Jahrbüch, 1835, vol. 13, p. 148 sq.), in enclitic particles often, as: hic, haec, hoc, for hice, etc.; so, illaec, sic, nunc, nec, ac, etc.: viden, potin: quin, for quine, etc., and as an initial in the present forms of the verb esse (sum, sumus, sunt; sim, etc., for esum, esumus, esunt, esim, etc.). But the forms facul, simul, Bacchanal, etc., are not apocopated. Even a radical ĕ sometimes drops out when a prefix or suffix is taken; so, gigno, for gigeno: malignus, for maligenus: gnatus, for genatus. The long e interchanges most freq. with the diphthongs ae and oe (q. v.); yet it sometimes also took the place of ā, as in anhēlo, from hālo, and in the rustic bēlo, for bālo; and likewise of ī, as LEBER, SPECA, AMECVS, for līber, spīca, amīcus (Quint. Inst. l. l.; Varr. R. R. 1, 48, 2; Paul. ex Fest. p. 15, 6 Müll.); and in words borrowed from the Greek, as chorēa, Darēus, along with Academīa, Alexandrīa; see the letter I. As an abbreviation, E (mostly in connection with other abbreviations) signifies egregius, equus, eques, erexit, evocatus, etc.; e. g. E. M. V. = egregiae memoriae vir; E. Q. R. = eques Romanus; EE. QQ. RR. = equites Romani; E. P. = equo publico; E. M. D. S. P. E. = e monitu de sua pecunia erexit, etc. praep., out of, from, v. ex.