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Lewis : exter

exter exter or extĕrus (both forms only post-class. and very rare), tĕra, tĕrum, adj. comp. form, from ex, on the outside, outward, of another country, family, etc., foreign, strange (syn.: extraneus; alienus, peregrinus, adventicius). Pos. (in Cic. and Caes. used in the plur.): quod exter heres praestare cogeretur, strange, Dig. 31, 1, 69: emancipatus vero aut exterus non aliter possunt hereditatem quaerere quam si, etc., ib. 29, 2, 84; cf. ib. 31, 1, 67, § 4: tactus corporis est sensus, vel cum res extera sese Insinuat, vel, etc., Lucr. 2, 435: vis, id. 2, 277: haec lex socialis est, hoc jus nationum exterarum est, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 5, 18: exterarum gentium multitudo, Suet. Caes. 84: non modo vestris civibus, verum etiam exteris nationibus, Cic. Font. 11, 25; cf.: apud exteras civitates, Cic. Caecin. 34, 100: apud exteras nationes, Caes. B. C. 3, 43 fin.; ad nationes exteras, Quint. 11, 1, 89: apud exteros, Plin. 18, 3, 5, § 22 et saep.: ab extero hoste atque longinquo, Cic. Cat. 2, 13.—In neutr. plur. with gen.: ad extera Europae noscenda missus Himilco, Plin. 2, 67, 67, § 169: ad extera corporum, id. 22, 23, 49, § 103.

Comp.: extĕrĭor, us (in signif. scarcely differing from its pos.), outward, outer, exterior; opp. interior (rare but class.): cum alterum fecisset exteriorem, interiorem alterum amplexus orbem, Cic. Univ. 7; cf.: simul ex navibus milites in exteriorem vallum tela jaciebant ... et legionarii, interioris munitionis defensores, Caes. B. C. 3, 63, 6: colle exteriore occupato, id. B. G. 7, 79, 1: circumire exteriores mutiones jubet, id. ib. 7, 87, 4: pares munitiones contra exteriorem hostem perfecit, id. ib. 7, 74: comes exterior, i. e. on the left side, Hor. S. 2, 5, 17.

Sup. in two forms, extrēmus and extĭmus or extŭmus [sup. of ex; cf. Gr. ἔσχατος, Curt. Gr. Etym. p. 387]. extrēmus, a, um (which in post-class. lang. is itself compared; comp.: extremior, App. M. 1, p. 105; 7, p. 188; sup.: extremissimus, Tert. Apol. 19), the outermost, utmost, extreme (so most freq.; cf.: ultimus, postremus, novissimus, supremus, imus). Lit.: extremum oppidum Allobrogum est Geneva, Caes. B. G. 1, 6, 3: flumen Axona, quod est in extremis Remorum finibus, on the farthest borders, id. ib. 2, 5, 4: fines, Liv. 39, 28, 2; 45, 29, 14; cf.: ad extremum finem provinciae Galliae venerunt, id. 40, 16, 5: impiger extremos currit mercator ad Indos, the remotest, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 45: Tanaïs, id. C. 3, 10, 1: in extrema fere parte epistolae, near the end, Cic. Att. 6, 1, 20; cf.: in codicis extrema cera, id. Verr. 2, 1, 36, § 92; but to denote the last part of a thing it is used more freq. in immediate connection with the substantive denoting the whole: quibus (litteris) in extremis, at its end, id. Att. 14, 8, 1; cf.: in qua (epistola) extrema, id. ib. 13, 45, 1: in extremo libro tertio, at the end of the third book, id. Off. 3, 2, 9: in extrema oratione, id. de Or. 1, 10, 41: in extremo ponte turrim constituit, Caes. B. G. 6, 29, 3; cf.: ad extremas fossas castella constituit, id. ib. 2, 8, 3: ab extremo agmine, id. ib. 2, 11, 4: in extrema Cappadocia, Cic. Fam. 15, 4, 4: extremis digitis aliquid attingere, id. Cael. 12, 28 et saep. —In the neutr. absol. and as subst.: extrē-mum, i, n., an end, the end: divitias alii praeponunt, alii honores, multi etiam voluptates; beluarum hoc quidem extremum, Cic. Lael. 6, 20: quod finitum est, habet extremum, id. Div. 2, 50, 103: missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, at the end, Liv. 21, 8, 10: in "Equo Trojano" scis esse in extremo "sero sapiunt," Cic. Fam. 7, 16, 1; cf.: quod erat in extremo, id. Att. 6, 9, 1.—With gen.: aliquid ad extremum causae reservatum, Cic. Deiot. 13, 35 (cf. infra, 2. a. fin.): caelum ipsum, quod extremum atque ultumum mundi est, id. Div. 2, 43, 91: ab Ocelo, quod est citerioris provinciae extremum, Caes. B. G. 1, 10, 5: summum gulae fauces vocantur, extremum stomachus, Plin. 11, 37, 68, § 179: in extremo montis, Sall. J. 37, 4.

In plur.: extrema agminis, Liv. 6, 32, 11: extrema Africae, Plin. 8, 10, 10, § 31: extrema Galliae, Flor. 3, 3, 1; 3, 20, 12; Tac. H. 5, 18; id. A. 4, 67; 4, 74.

Trop. In respect to time or the order of succession, the latest, last: inter prioris mensis senescentis extremum diem et novam lunam, Varr. L. L. 6, § 10 Müll.: mensis anni Februarius, Cic. Leg. 2, 21, 54: tempore diei, Hirt. B. G. 8, 15, 6: eam amicitiam ad extremum finem vitae perduxit, Liv. 37, 53, 8: matres ab extremo conspectu liberorum exclusae, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 118: manus extrema non accessit operibus ejus, the finishing hand, the last touches, id. Brut. 33, 126: extremum illud est, ut te orem et obsecrem, it remains only, id. Fam. 4, 13, 7; id. Att. 11, 16, 5.—To denote the last part of a thing (cf. above, 1.): quod eo die potest videri extrema et prima luna, i. e. the end and the beginning, Varr. L. L. l. l.: usque ad extremam aetatem ab adolescentia, Nep. Cato, 2, 4; id. Att. 10, 3; cf.: ita tantum bellum Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, media aestate confecit, Cic. de lmp. Pomp. 12, 35: extremo anno, Liv. 2, 64, 1: extremo tempore, in the last time, at last, Nep. Dat. 10; id. Epam. 9; id. Eum. 5, 3 al.: extrema pueritia, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: extremo Peloponnesio bello, Nep. Con. 1, 2: extremus dies, the close of day, the evening, Sil 7, 172; 14, 8.—Subst.: illum Praeteritum temnens extremos inter euntem, Hor. S. 1, 1, 116; cf.: extremi primorum, extremis usque priores, id. Ep. 2, 2, 204: extremus dominorum, Tac. H. 4, 42 fin.: die extremum erat, Sall. J. 21, 2: extremum aestatis, id. ib. 90, 1: extremo anni, Liv. 35, 11, 1: sub extremum noctis, Sil. 4, 88 al.—Prov.: extrema semper de ante factis judicant (cf. our wise after the event), Pub. Syr. 163 Rib.—Adv.: extremum. For the last time: alloquor extremum maestos abiturus amicos, Ov. Tr. 1, 3, 15: cum diu occulte suspirassent, postea jam gemere, ad extremum vero loqui omnes et clamare coeperunt.

At last, finally, Cic. Att. 2, 21, 2: extremum tenues liquefacta medullas Tabuit, Ov. M. 14, 431.—Adverb. phrase: ad extremum, id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 4, 4, 2 et saep.; cf., strengthened by tum: invenire quod dicas ... deinde ... post ... tum ad extremum agere ac pronuntiare, Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 79; and strengthened by denique: ad extremum ipsa denique necessitate excitantur, id. Sest. 47, 100: decimo loco testis exspectatus et ad extremum reservatus dixit, etc., till the end, to the last, id. Caecin. 10, 28: ad extremum, Ov. P. 1, 9, 28; 3, 7, 20; for which: in extremum (durare), id. H. 7, 111: qui extremo mortuus est, at last, Dig. 32, 1, 81: extremo, Nep. Ham. 2, 3.

Extreme in quality or degree; used, like ultimus, to denote both the highest and the lowest grade. The utmost, highest, greatest: cum extremum hoc sit (sentis enim, credo, me jam diu, quod τέλος Graeci dicunt, id dicere tum extremum, tum ultimum, tum summum: licebit etiam finem pro extremo aut ultimo dicere) cum igitur hoc sit extremum, congruenter naturae vivere, etc., Cic. Fin. 3, 7, 26: extremam famem sustentare, Caes. B. G. 7, 17, 3: ad extrema et inimicissima jura tam cupide decurrebas, Cic. Quint. 15, 48; cf.: decurritur ad illud extremum atque ultimum S. C., Dent operam consules, etc., Caes. B. C. 1, 5, 3: extremam rationem belli sequens, id. ib. 3, 44, 1: neque aliud se fatigando nisi odium quaerere, extremae dementiae est, is the height of madness, Sall. J. 3, 3: in extremis suis rebus, in the utmost, greatest danger, Caes. B. G. 2, 25 fin.: res, Suet. Ner. 6 fin.; cf.: res jam ad extremum perducta casum, Caes. B. G. 3, 5, 1: necessitate extrema ad mortem agi, Tac. A. 13, 1.—Subst.: si nihil in Lepido spei sit, descensurum ad extrema, to desperate measures, Pollio ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 4: ad extrema perventum est, Curt. 4, 14, 14: ad extrema ventum foret, ni, etc., Liv. 2, 47, 8: compellere ad extrema deditionis, to surrender at discretion, Flor. 4, 5; cf.: famem, ferrum et extrema pati, Tac. H. 4, 59: plura de extremis loqui, id. ib. 2, 47 al.: res publica in extremo sita, Sall. C. 52, 11; Sen. de Ira, 1, 11, 5.—Adverb.: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, utterly, Liv. 23, 2, 4.

The lowest, vilest, meanest (perh. not ante-Aug.): mancipia, Sen. Ep. 70 fin.: latrones, App. M. 3, p. 131: quidam sortis extremae juvenis, Just. 15, 1: alimenta vitae, Tac. A. 6, 24: extremi ingenii est, Liv. 22, 29, 8.

extĭmus or extŭmus, a, um, the outermost, farthest, most remote (rare but class.): novem orbes, quorum unus est caelestis, extimus, qui reliquos omnes complectitur, Cic. Rep. 6, 17: circum caesura membrorum, Lucr. 3, 219; 4, 647: promontorium Oceani, Plin. 5, 1, 1, § 1: gentes, id. 2, 78, 80, § 190: factus sum extimus a vobis, i. e. discarded, estranged, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Prisc. p. 609 P.—Subst.: Apuliae extima, the borders, Plin. 6, 34, 39, § 217.