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Lewis : humus

humus, hŭmus, i (archaic form of the abl. sing. humu, Varr. ap. Non. 488, 6 and 48, 26), f. (archaic masc. humum humidum pedibus fodit, Laev. ap. Prisc. p. 719 P.: humidum humum, Gracch. ib.) [from the prim. form XAM, whence χăμαί, χăμόθεν, χăμαλός, Lat. humilis; kindr. with Sanscr. Xám, earth; Gr. χθών ], the earth, the ground, the soil. Lit. (class.; cf.: terra, solum, tellus): humus erat immunda, lutulenta vino, coronis languidulis et spinis coöperta piscium, Cic. Fragm. Or. pro Gall. ap. Quint. 8, 3, 66 (ap. Orell. IV. 2, p. 454); cf.: omnia constrata telis, armis, cadaveribus et inter ea humus infecta sanguine, Sall. J. 101 fin.: subacta atque pura, Cic. de Sen. 17, 59: cubitis pinsibant humum, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 23 Müll. (Trag. v. 435 Vahl.); cf.: procubuit moriens et humum semel ore momordit. bit the ground and died (cf. the Homer. ὀδὰξ ἑλεῖν γαῖαν ), Verg. A. 11, 418: calcibus atram Tundit humum exspirans, id. ib. 10, 731; cf. Ov. A. A. 1, 112: pede candido In morem Salium ter quatient humum, Hor. C. 4, 1, 28: Acestes aequaevum ab humo attollit amicum, Verg. A. 5, 452: sedit humo, Ov. M. 4, 261: ipse feraces Figat humo plantas, Verg. G. 4, 115; cf.: semina spargere humo, Ov. M. 5, 647: surgit humo, id. F. 6, 735; cf.: nec se movit humo, id. M. 4, 264: dejectoque in humum vultu, id. ib. 6, 607: propter humum volitat, id. ib. 8, 258: humi atque ipsius stirpis laetitia, Col. 4, 24, 4; cf.: quis cibus erat caro ferina atque humi pabulum uti pecoribus, Sall. J. 18, 1: ii, quos humus injecta contegeret (shortly afterwards, gleba), Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 57: quae (genera arborum) humi arido atque arenoso gignuntur, Sall. J. 48, 3 Kritz N. cr.—Poet., as a fig. for what is low, mean, common: sermones repentes per humum, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 251; cf.: ne, dum vitat humum, nubes et inania captet, id. A. P. 230: ad humum maerore gravi deducit et angit, id. ib. 110; v. also under adv.: affigit humo divinae particulam aurae, id. S. 2, 2, 79.

Transf., in gen., like solum, land, country, region: Punica nec Teucris pressa fuisset humus, Ov. H. 7, 140: Aonia, id. F. 1, 490: Illyrica, id. Med. Fac. 74: Pontica, id. P. 3, 5, 56.

Adverbial form humi, like χαμαί, on the ground or to the ground: jacere humi, Cic. Cat. 1, 10, 26: requiescere, Sall. J. 85, 33: strati, Cic. de Or. 3, 6, 22; cf.: serpit humi tutus nimium timidusque procellae, Hor. A. P. 28: quousque humi defixa tua mens erit? fixed on the ground, Cic. Rep. 6, 17: locus circiter duodecim pedes humi depressus, Sall. C. 55, 3: quot humi morientia corpora fundis? Verg. A. 11, 665: spargere humi dentes, Ov. M. 3, 105; cf.: hunc stravit humi, id. ib. 12, 255: tremens procumbit humi bos, Verg. A. 5, 481: volvitur ille excussus humi, id. ib. 11, 640; cf.: projectum humi jugulavit, Tac. H. 2, 64: stratus humi palmes viduas desiderat ulmos, Juv. 8, 78.