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Lewis : imperator

imperator impĕrātor (inp-), ōris (archaic form induperator, Enn. Ann. v. 86; 332; 350; 552 Vahl.; Lucr. 4, 967; 5, 1227; cf. 1. init.; but in Enn. also imperator, Trag. v. 34 Vahl.), m. id.. Orig., milit. t. t., a commander-in-chief, general, = στρατηγός (cf.: dux, ductor). In gen.: si forte quaereretur, quae esset ars imperatoris, constituendum putarem principio, quis esset imperator: qui cum esset constitutus administrator quidam belli gerendi, tum adjungeremus de exercitu, de castris, etc.... de reliquis rebus, quae essent propriae belli administrandi: quarum qui essent animo et scientia compotes, eos esse imperatores dicerem, utererque exemplis Africanorum et Maximorum; Epaminondam atque Hannibalem atque ejus generis homines nominarem, Cic. de Or. 1, 48, 210: aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet, Caes. B. C. 3, 51, 4: sapiens et callidus imperator, Cic. Inv. 1, 34, 58: bonus ac fortis, id. de Or. 2, 44, 187; cf.: egregie fortis et bonus, id. ib. 2, 66, 268: eosdem labores non aeque esse graves imperatori et militi, id. Tusc. 2, 26, 62: ego sic existimo in summo imperatore quatuor has res inesse oportere, scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem, etc., id. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: unum ad id bellum imperatorem deposci, id. ib. 2, 5: nomen invicti imperatoris, id. Verr. 2, 4, 38, § 82: Themistocles ... imperator bello Persico, id. Lael. 12, 42: cum pro se quisque in conspectu imperatoris ... operam navare cuperet, Caes. B. G. 2, 25 fin.: insece, Musa, manu Romanorum induperator Quod quisque in bello gessit cum rege Philippo, Enn. ap. Gell. 18, 9, 3 (Ann. v. 332 Vahl.): induperatores pugnare ac proelia obire, Lucr. 4, 967.—As a title, placed after the name: M. Cicero S. D. C. Antonio M. F. Imp., Cic. Fam. 5, 5 inscr.: Cn. Pompeio Cn. F. Magno Imperatori, id. ib. 5, 7 inscr.: Vatinio Imp. S., id. ib. 5, 11 et saep.

In partic., pregn., in the times of the republic, a title of honor conferred on a general after any important victory: his rebus gestis Curio se in castra ad Bagradam recepit, atque universi exercitus conclamatione Imperator appellatur, Caes. B. C. 2, 26, 1; cf.: Pompeius eo proelio Imperator est appellatus, id. ib. 3, 71, 3; Cic. Phil. 14, 4, 11; 14, 5, 12; Caes. B. C. 3, 31, 1; Liv. 27, 19, 4; Inscr. Orell. 542; 3417 sq. (cf. also Plin. Pan. 12, 1).

Transf. beyond the milit. sphere. In gen., a commander, leader, chief, director, ruler, master: (Romani) immutato more annua imperia, binos imperatores sibi fecere, i. e. consuls, Sall. C. 6, 7: (vis venti) Induperatorem classis super aequora verrit, admiral, Lucr. 5, 1227: imperator histricus, director, manager, Plaut. Poen. prol. 4: di te servassint semper ... salus interioris hominis amorisque inperator, id. As. 3, 3, 66: familiae, id. Capt. 2, 2, 57: nolo eundem populum imperatorem et portitorem esse terrarum, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 24, 22 (Rep. 4, 7 Mos.): dux et imperator vitae mortalium animus est, Sall. J. 1, 3: vitae nostrae necisque, Plin. 29, 1, 5, § 11.

In partic. An epithet of Jupiter, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 58, § 129: signum Jovis Imperatoris, Liv. 6, 29, 8.

The conqueror at a game of chess, Vop. Proc. 13, 2.

The title of the Roman emperors, placed either before or after the name (cf. I.); before it, Suet. Caes. 76; Claud. 12; 26: IMP. CAESARI DIVI IVLI F., Inscr. Orell. 596; so ib. 597; 600; 602; 604 sq.; after it, Suet. Oth. 2; Plin. 5, 2, 1, § 20; Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 9; 4, 17, 8; 4, 22, 4.—Hence afterwards absol.: Imperator, a Roman emperor, Tac. A. 3, 74: velut praesagium insequentis casus, quo medius inter utriusque filios exstitit Imperator, Suet. Galb. 6; id. Claud. 13; 29; id. Galb. 3, 6, 20; id. Vit. 3 et saep.