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Lewis : ipse

ipse ipse (ipsus, Cato, R. R. 70; 71; Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 43; id. Trin. 2, 2, 40; 3, 1, 10 et saep.; Ter. And. 3, 2, 15; id. Eun. 3, 4, 8, id. Hec. 3, 5, 5; Jusjur. Milit. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 4 al.), a, um (ipsud, Gloss. Philox.); gen. ipsīus (poet. also ipsĭus, Cat. 64, 43; Verg. A. 1, 114; 2, 772 al.; and dissyl. Ter. Heaut. 3, 3, 15; id. Phorm. 4, 5, 13: ipsi, Afran. ap. Prisc. 694); dat. ipsi (ipso, App. M. 10, p. 243, 24); pron. demonstr. [is - pse for pte; cf. sua-pte and -pote in ut-pote; root in potis; Sanscr. patis, lord, master; hence, = he, the master, himself, etc.; cf. Pott. Etym. Forsch. 2, 866 sq.; Fick, Vergl. Wörterb. p. 116. Hence, in the original form, the pronoun is was declined, while the suffix was unchanged; thus eopte = eo ipso, Paul. ex Fest. p. 110: eapse = ea ipsa, id. p. 77; nom. sing. eapse, Plaut. Curc. 1, 3, 4; id. Cist. 1, 2, 17; id. Rud. 2, 3, 80; 2, 5, 21 al.; acc. eumpse, Plaut. Most. 1, 4, 32: eampse, Plaut. Aul. 5, 7; id. Cist. 1, 3, 22; id. Men. 5, 2, 22 al.; abl. eopse, Plaut. Curc, 4, 3, 6: eāpse, id. Trin. 4, 2, 132; id. Curc. 4, 3, 2; v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 197 sq.], = αὐτός, self, in person, he (emphatic), himself, herself, itself, used both substantively and adjectively, to denote that person (thing) of which something is eminently or exclusively predicated. In gen. With substt. or pronn. Expressing eminence or distinction: ipse ille Gorgias ... in illo ipso Platonis libro, Cic. de Or. 3, 32, 129: ille ipse Marcellus, id. Verr. 2, 2, 2, § 4: natura ipsa, id. Brut. 29, 112: dicet pro me ipsa virtus, id. Fin. 2, 20, 65: ipsa res publica, id. Fam. 3, 11, 3: neque enim ipse Caesar est alienus a nobis, id. ib. 6, 10, 2: ipse Moeris, Verg. E. 8, 96: rex ipse Aeneas, id. A. 1, 575: ipse aries, id. E. 3, 95: ductores ipsi, id. A. 1, 189: si in ipsa arce habitarem, Liv. 2, 7, 10; esp. freq. with names of gods, etc.: naturas quas Juppiter ipse Addidit, Verg. G. 4, 149; id. A. 3, 222; Hor. C. 1, 16, 12: Pater ipse, Verg. G. 1, 121; Tib. 1, 4, 23: Venus ipsa, Hor. C. 2, 8, 13; Ov. H. 19, 159: ipse pater Pluton, Verg. A. 7, 327 et saep.—Prov.: audentes deus ipse juvat, Ov. M. 10, 586.

For emphasis or in contrast, very, just, precisely, self, in person: adest optime ipse frater, Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 66: in orationibus hisce ipsis, Cic. de Or. 1, 16, 73: ea ipsa hora, id. Fam. 7, 23, 4: nec carmina nobis Ipsa placent: ipsae rursus concedite silvae, Verg. E. 10, 63: tute ipse his rebus finem praescripsti, Ter. And. 1, 1, 124: lepide ipsi hi sunt capti, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 91: ego enim ipse cum eodem isto non invitus erraverim, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40: ipse ille divinationis auctor, id. Div. 2, 28, 61: cariorem esse patriam quam nosmet ipsos, id. Fin. 3, 19, 64: eaque ipsa causa belli fuit, the very, the true cause, Liv. 1, 57, 1; esp. with is, in all persons and numbers: estne hic Philto? Is hercle'st ipsus, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 31: cui tutor is fuerat ipse, Liv. 5, 33, 3: jam id ipsum absurdum, maximum malum neglegi, even, Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93 (Madv.); id. de Or. 2, 30, 132: tempus ad id ipsum congruere, Liv. 1, 5, 5: duum vir ad id ipsum creatus, id. 2, 42, 5: Tullius et eos ipsos et per eos multitudinem aliam deduxit, id. 2, 38, 1: eorum ipsorum facta (opp. loca in quibus, etc.), Cic. Fin. 5, 1, 2: nec vero clarorum virorum post mortem honores permanerent, si nihil eorum ipsorum animi efficerent, id. de Sen. 22, 80: ad eum ipsum honorem deferre, Liv. 3, 51, 3; so sometimes with an inf. or subst.-clause: ipsum dicere ineptum, Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 112: quid juvat quod ante initum tribunatum veni, si ipsum, quod veni, nihil juvat? the mere fact, the fact alone, id. Att. 11, 9, 1: ipsum, quod habuisti, Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 12, 2: et ipsum, quod sum victus, ama, Luc. 8, 78.

Esp. in legal phrase: ipso jure, by the letter of the law, in legal strictness or precision, Gai Inst. 2, 198; 3, 181; 4, 106 sqq. et saep.

Alone, emphatically taking the place of an omitted person. or demonstr. pron.: Ar. Ubi is nunc est? He. Ubi ego minume atque ipsus se volt maxume, Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 108; 4, 1, 10: Su. Is ipsusne's? Ch. Aio: Su. Ipsus es? id. Trin. 4, 2, 146: atque ipsis, ad quorum commodum pertinebat, durior inventus est Coelius, Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 4: quaeram ex ipsā, Cic. Cael. 14: tempus, quo ipse eos sustulisset, ad id ipsum congruere, Liv. 1, 5, 5: agrum dare immunem ipsi, qui accepisset, liberisque, id. 21, 45, 5; 9, 34, 18; 10, 6, 10: laeta et ipsis qui rem gessere expugnatio fuit, id. 28, 4, 1: a nobis exposita, ut ab ipsis, qui eam disciplinam probant, Cic. Fin. 1, 5, 13.—So freq. in Cic. before a rel.: ut de ipso, qui judicarit, judicium fieri videretur, Cic. Inv. 1, 44, 82: ipsi omnia, quorum negotium est, ad nos deferunt, id. de Or. 1, 58, 250; 2, 14, 60; id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 13; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93: nullis definitionibus utuntur, ipsique dicunt ea se modo probare, quibus natura tacita assentiatur, Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 40 Madv.

To make prominent one of two or more subjects of any predicate, he (she, il), for his part, he too, also, as well. Ipse alone: litterae Metello Capuam adlatae sunt a Clodia, quae ipsa transiit, i. e. also, in person, Cic. Att. 9, 6, 3: Italiam ornare quam domum suam maluit: quamquam Italia ornata domus ipsa mihi videtur ornatior, id. Off. 2, 22, 76: tris ipse excitavit recitatores, he too, id. Clu. 51, 141: neque tanti timoris sum ut ipse deficiam, Caes. B. C. 2, 31, 8: Jugurtha, tametsi regem ficta locutum intellegebat, et ipse longe aliter animo agitabat, Sall. J. 11, 1: hoc Rhipeus, hoc ipse Dymas omnisque juventus Laeta facit, Verg. A. 2, 394.

With conjunctions. With etiam (class.): ipse etiam Fufidius in numero fuit, Cic. Brut. 29, 112: scribebat orationes quas alii dicerent: quamquam is etiam ipse scripsit eas, quibus pro se est usus, sed non sine Aelio; his enim scriptis etiam ipse interfui, id. ib. 56, 206 sq.

With quoque: quippe quia plebs senatus consultum solvit, ipsi quoque solutum vultis, Liv. 3, 21, 4: consul, quia collegae decretum triumphum audivit, ipse quoque triumphi flagitator Romam rediit, id. 8, 12, 9: cum subito Sulpicius et Albinovanus objecissent catervas, ipse quoque (Sulla) jaculatus, etc., Flor. 3, 21, 7.

With et (et ipse = καὶ αὐτός, ipse etiam; rare in Cic.; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 698): tamen et ipsi tuae familiae genere et nomine continebuntur, Cic. Caecin. 20, 58: deseret eos quos una scis esse, cum habeat praesertim et ipse cohortis triginta? id. Att. 8, 7, 1; id. de Or. 1, 46, 202: Cornelius dictatorem Aemilium dixit, et ipse ab eo magister equitum est dictus, Liv. 4, 31, 5: credo ego vos, socii, et ipsos cernere, id. 21, 21, 3: Cornelio minus copiarum datum, quia L. Manlius praetor et ipse cum praesidio in Galliam mittebatur, id. 21, 17, 7: qui et ipse crus fregerat, Suet. Aug. 43: Antoninus Commodus nihil paternum habuit, nisi quod contra Germanos feliciter et ipse pugnavit, Eutr. 8, 7: virtutes et ipsae taedium pariunt, Quint. 9, 4, 43.

With nec ( = ne ipse quidem): primis repulsis Maharbal cum majore robore virorum missus nec ipse eruptionem cohortium sustinuit, Liv. 23, 18, 4: nihil moveri viderunt, nec ipsi quicquam mutarunt, id. 37, 20, 8: neque ipsi, id. 30, 42, 7: crimina non quidem nec ipsa mediocria; sed quid ista sunt prae iis, etc., id. 34, 32, 9. Esp. By way of eminence, ipse is used to indicate the chief person, host, master, teacher, etc.: ipsa, the mistress, etc.: ipsus tristis, Ter. And. 2, 2, 23: ipsum praesto video, id. ib. 2, 5, 3: ego eo quo me ipsa misit, Plaut. Cas. 4, 2, 10: suam norat ipsam tam bene, quam puella matrem, Cat. 3, 7 (Müll., ipsa); cf.: Pythagorei respondere solebant, ipse dixit, i. e. Pythagoras, Cic. N. D. 1, 5, 10; cf.: nec hoc oratori contingere inter adversarios quod Pythagorae inter discipulos potest ipse dixit, Quint. 11, 1, 27: cum veniat lectica Mathonis plena ipso, the great man, Juv. 1, 33: anseris ante ipsum jecur, before the host, id. 5, 114.

Of or by one's self, of one's own accord = suā sponte, ultro: videar non ipse promisisse (opp. to fortuito), Cic. de Or. 1, 24, 111: de manibus delapsa arma ipsa ceciderunt, id. Off. 1, 22, 77: valvae clausae se ipsae aperuerunt, id. Div. 1, 37, 74: ipsae lacte domum referent distenta capellae Ubera, Verg. E. 4, 21: ipsi potum venient juvenci, id. ib. 7, 11; cf.: aliae ipsae Sponte sua veniunt, id. G. 2, 10: fruges sponte sua (tellus) primum ipsa creavit, Lucr. 2, 11, 58; and αὐταί for αὐτόματοι, Theocr. Idyll. 11, 12.

Himself exclusively. By or in one's self, alone: haec ipse suo tristi cum corde volutat, Verg. A. 6, 185: his actis, aliud genitor secum ipse volutat, id. ib. 12, 843: tempus secum ipsa Exigit, id. ib. 4, 475: quam facile exercitu soclos conservaturus sit, qui ipso nomine ac rumore defenderit, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 15, 45: multa secum ipse volvens, Sall. C. 32, 1: aestimando ipse secum, Liv. 25, 23, 11.

In one's self, for one's own sake: ipsam aequitatem et jus ipsum amare, Cic. Leg. 1, 18, 48.

Of one's self, of one's own nature, etc.: erat ipse immani acerbāque naturā Oppianicus, Cic. Clu. 15, 44: duo imperatores, ipsi pares, ceterum opibus disparibus, Sall. J. 52, 1: natura serpentium, ipsa perniciosa, siti accenditur, id. ib. 89, 5.

With advv. of time. Nunc ipsum, just now, at this very time: nunc ipsum exurit, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 9, 16: nunc ipsum non dubitabo rem tantam adicere, Cic. Att. 7, 3, 2; 8, 9, 2: nunc tamen ipsum sine te esse non possum, id. ib. 12, 16.

Tum ipsum, just then, at that very time: id, quod aliquando posset accidere, ne tum ipsum accideret, timere, Cic. de Or. 1, 27, 124: ratio largitionum vitiosa est, temporibus necessaria, et tum ipsum ad facultates accommodanda est, id. Off. 2, 17, 60: et tum ipsum, cum immolare velis, extorum fieri mutatio potest, id. Div. 1, 52, 118; cf. id. Fin. 2, 20, 65 Madv.

With numerals, just, exactly, precisely (opp. fere): triginta dies erant ipsi, cum, etc., Cic. Att. 3, 21 init.: ipsas undecim esse legiones, id. Fam. 6, 18, 2: nam cum dixisset minus I?*! (sc. milia), populus cum risu acclamavit, ipsa esse, id. Caecin. 10, 28; cf. id. Brut. 15, 61; 43, 162: ipso vigesimo anno, id. Verr. 2, 2, 9, § 25.

In reflexive uses, Ipse strengthens the subject when opposed in thought to other agents; the object, when opposed to other objects; cf. Zumpt, Gram. § 696; Kennedy, Gram. § 67, 3; Madv. Gram. § 487, 6.

Hence, With subject. In gen.: non egeo medicina (i. e. ut alii me consolentur), me ipse consolor, Cic. Lael. 3, 10: Junius necem sibi ipse conscivit, id. N. D. 2, 3, 7: neque potest exercitum is continere imperator, qui se ipse non continet, id. de Imp. Pomp. 13, 38: Artaxerxes se ipse reprehendit, Nep. Dat. 5: ipsa se virtus satis ostendit, Sall. J. 85; cf.: deponendo tutelam ipse in se unum omnium vires convertit, Liv. 24, 4, 9: deforme etiam est de se ipsum praedicare, Cic. Off. 1, 38, 137.

With special emphasis, ipse is joined to the subject to indicate its relation to itself as both subject and object, though the antithesis would suggest another case (Cic.): cum iste sic erat humilis atque demissus, ut non modo populo Romano, sed etiam sibi ipse condemnatus videretur, Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17: si quis ipse sibi inimicus est, id. Fin. 5, 10, 28: qui ipsi sibi bellum indixissent, id. ib. 5, 10, 29: quoniam se ipsi omnes natura diligant, id. ib. 3, 18, 59: nam si ex scriptis cognosci ipsi suis potuissent, id. de Or. 2, 2, 8.

With object: neque vero ipsam amicitiam tueri (possumus), nisi aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus, Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 67: omne animal se ipsum diligit, id. ib. 5, 9, 24: fac ut diligentissime te ipsum custodias, id. Fam. 9, 14, 8: Pompeianus miles fratrem suum, dein se ipsum interfecit, Tac. H. 3, 51: Lentulum, quem mihi ipsi antepono, Cic. Fam. 3, 7, 5.

Ipse defines the subject of a reflexive pronoun: natura movet infantem, sed tantum ut se ipse diligat (where ipse shows that se refers to infantem), Cic. Fin. 2, 10, 33: proinde consulant sibi ipsi; jubeant abire se, Just. 16, 4, 15: neque prius vim adhibendam putaverunt, quam se ipse indicasset, Nep. Paus. 4: in portis murisque sibimet ipsos tecta coëgerat aedificare, Liv. 27, 3, 2 (cf. 1. a. supra).

Ipse stands for the reflexive pronoun, Where the person or thing referred to is to be emphatically distinguished from others (class.): cum omnes se expetendos putent, nec id ob aliam rem, sed propter ipsos, necesse est ejus etiam partes propter se expeti, etc., Cic. Fin. 5, 17, 46: quis umquam consul senatum ipsius decretis parere prohibuit? id. Sest. 14, 32: quos, quidquid ipsis expediat, facturos arbitrabimur, id. Fin. 2, 35, 117: qui negant se recusare, quo minus, ipsis mortuis, terrarum deflagratio consequatur, id. ib. 3, 19, 64: nec quid ipsius natura sit intellegit, id. ib. 5, 9, 24.

In a subordinate clause, to point out either the subject of the principal clause, or the chief agent or speaker; esp. where se or sibi is already applied to the subject of the subordinate clause: ne ob eam rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos despiceret, Caes. B. G. 1, 13, 5: legatos ad consulem mittit, qui tantum modo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, Sall. J. 16, 2; cf.: ipsis mortuis, Cic. Fin. 3, 19, 64: supra nihil, quantum in ipso est, praetermittere quo minus, etc., id. Leg. 1, 21, 56: ipsius, id. ib. 2, 22, 55: nihil umquam audivi ... nihil de re publica gravius, nihil de ipso modestius, i. e. de ipso dicente, id. Balb. 1, 2: id quod ipsum adjuvat (i. e. dicentem; opp. id quod adversario prodest), id. Inv. 1, 21, 30.

In gen., for an emphatic se or sibi (mostly post-Aug.; v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 40): nam ipsis certum esse, etc., Liv. 35, 46, 13: pravitas consulum discordiaque inter ipsos, id. 4, 26, 6: inexperta remedia haud injuria ipsis esse suspecta, Curt. 3, 5, 15: Graecis nuntiare jubet, ipsum quidem gratias agere, etc., id. 3, 8, 7: dixit, ab illo deo ipsos genus ducere, id. 4, 2, 3: a quibus nec acceperunt injuriam nec accepisse ipsos existimant, Sen. de Ira, 2, 5, 1: intemperantiam in morbo suam experti parere ipsis vetant, id. ib. 3, 13, 5: sciunt ipsos omnia habere communia, id. Ep. 6, 3; 22, 10 et saep.; cf.: verum est etiam iis, qui aliquando futuri sint, esse propter ipsos consulendum, Cic. Fin. 3, 19, 64.

Ipse stands in free constr. with abl. absol. as with finite verb (cf. also quisque; only freq. in Liv. and post-Aug. writers): cum dies venit, causa ipse pro se dicta, quindecim milibus aeris damnatur, Liv. 4, 44, 10 Weissenb. ad loc.: Romani imperatores, junctis et ipsi exercitibus ... ad sedem hostium pervenere, id. 29, 2, 2: C. Popilius, dimissis et ipse Atticis navibus ... pergit, id. 45, 10, 2; cf.: Catilina et Autronius parabant consules interficere, ipsi fascibus conreptis Pisonem cum exercitu mittere, Sall. C. 18, 5: amisso et ipse Pacoro, Tac. G. 37; cf. also the emphatic use of ipse (like quisque) with abl. of gerund (freq. in Liv.): adsentando indignandoque et ipse, Liv. 40, 23, 1: cogendo ipse, id. 39, 49, 3: agendo ipse, id. 41, 24, 2: aestimando ipse secum, id. 25, 23, 11 et saep.?*! Ipse is very rarely strengthened by the suffix -met: ipsemet abiit, Plaut. Am. prol. 102: ipsimet nobis, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 3: ipsemet profugiam, Sen. Ep. 117, 21; also Front. Aq. 74 ex conj.

Sup.: Com. Ergo ipsusne es? Charm. Ipsissumus, his own very self, Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 146; cf. Gr. αὐτότατος, Aristoph. Plut. 83; so, ipsimus and ipsima, for dominus and domina (cf II. A. supra), Petr. 75, 11; and: ipsimi nostri, id. 63, 3 Büch. ex conj.