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Lewis : liber

liber, līber, ĕra, ĕrum (old form, loebesum et loebertatem antiqui dicebant liberum et libertatem. Ita Graeci λοιβὴν et λείβειν, Paul. ex Fest. p. 121 Müll.; cf. 2. Liber), adj. Gr. root λιφ-, λίπτω, to desire; cf. Sanscr. lub-dhas, desirous; Lat. libet, libido, that acts according to his own will and pleasure, is his own master; free, unrestricted, unrestrained, unimpeded, unshackled; independent, frank, open, bold (opp. servus, servilis). In gen.; constr. absol., with ab, the abl., and poet. also with gen. Absol.: dictum est ab eruditissimis viris, nisi sapientem liberum esse neminem. Quid est enim libertas? Potestas vivendi ut velis, Cic. Par. 5, 1, 33: an ille mihi liber, cui mulier imperat, cui leges imponit, praescribit, jubet, vetat? etc., id. ib. 5, 2, 36: ad scribendi licentiam liber, id. N. D. 1, 44, 123: agri immunes ac liberi, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 166: integro animo ac libero causam defendere, unprejudiced, unbiased, id. Sull. 31, 86: liberi ad causas solutique veniebant, not under obligations, not bribed, id. Verr. 2, 2, 78 § 192; cf.: libera lingua, Plaut. Cist. 1, 2, 9: cor liberum, id. Ep. 1, 2, 43: vocem liberam mittere adversus aliquem, Liv. 35, 32, 6: libera verba animi proferre, Juv. 4, 90: judicium audientium relinquere integrum ac liberum, Cic. Div. 2, 72, 150: aliquid respuere ingenuo liberoque fastidio, id. Brut. 67, 236: libero tempore, cum soluta nobis est eligendi optio, id. Fin. 1, 10, 33: tibi uni vexatio direptioque sociorum impunita fuit ac libera, id. Cat. 1, 7, 18: pars quaestionum vaga et libera et late patens, id. de Or. 2, 16, 67: liberum arbitrium eis populo Romano permittente, Liv. 31, 11 fin.; cf. id. 37, 1, 5: mandata, full powers, unlimited authority, id. 37, 56; 38, 8: fenus, unlimited, id. 35, 7: custodia, free custody (i. e. confinement to a house or to a town), id. 24, 45; Vell. 1, 11, 1; v. custodia, II.: legatio, v. legatio: suffragia, the right of voting freely, Juv. 8, 211: locus, free from intruders, undisturbed, secure, Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 49; 3, 2, 25; id. Cas. 3, 2, 4: aedes, a free house, free dwelling (assigned to the use of ambassadors of friendly nations during their stay in Rome), Liv. 30, 17 fin.; 35, 23; 42, 6: lectulus, i. e. not shared with a wife, Cic. Att. 14, 13, 5: toga (poet. for virilis toga), a man's (prop. of one who is his own master), Ov. F. 3, 771: vestis, id. ib. 3, 777: libera omnia sibi servare, to reserve to one's self full liberty, Plin. Ep. 1, 5.—Comp.: hoc liberiores et solutiores sumus, quod, etc., Cic. Ac. 2, 3, 8: est finitimus oratori poëta, numeris astrictior paulo, verborum licentia liberior, id. de Or. 1, 16, 70: liberiores litterae, id. Att. 1, 13, 1: amicitia remissior esse debet et liberior et dulcior, freer, more unrestrained, more cheerful, id. Lael. 18 fin.: paulo liberior sententia, Quint. 4, 2, 121: liberior in utramque partem disputatio, id. 7, 2, 14: fusiores liberioresque numeri, id. 9, 4, 130: officia liberiora plenioraque, id. 6, 1, 9: (flumina) campo recepta Liberioris aquae, freer, less impeded, Ov. M. 1, 41; cf.: (Tiberinus) campo liberiore natat, freer, opener, id. F. 4, 292: liberiore frui caelo, freer, opener, id. M. 15, 301.—Sup.: liberrimum hominum genus, comici veteres tradunt, etc., the frankest, most free-spoken, Quint. 12, 2, 22; cf.: liberrime Lolli, most frank, most ingenuous, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 1: indignatio, id. Epod. 4, 10.

Free or exempt from, void of; with ab: Mamertini vacui, expertes, soluti ac liberi fuerunt ab omni sumptu, molestia, munere, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 10, § 23; cf.: (consul) solutus a cupiditatibus, liber a delictis, id. Agr. 1, 9, 27: ab observando homine perverso liber, id. Att. 1, 13, 2: liber a tali irrisione Socrates, liber Aristo Chius, id. Ac. 2, 39, 123: ab omni animi perturbatione liber, id. Off. 1, 20, 67; id. N. D. 2, 21, 55: loca abdita et ab arbitris libera, id. Att. 15, 16, B: libera a ferro crura, Ov. P. 1, 6, 32: animus liber a partibus rei publicae, Sall. C. 4.

With abl.: animus omni liber curā et angore, free from, without, Cic. Fin. 1, 15: animus religione, Liv. 2, 36: animus cogitationibus aliis, Quint. 11, 2, 35: mens omnibus vitiis, id. 12, 1, 4; cf.: liberis odio et gratia mentibus, id. 5, 11, 37: omni liber metu, Liv. 7, 34: liber invidia, Quint. 12, 11, 7: equus carcere, Ov. Am. 2, 9, 20.

With gen. (poet.): liber laborum, Hor. A. P. 212: fati gens Lydia, Verg. A. 10, 154: curarum, Luc. 4, 384. —Comp.: liberior campi, having a wider space, Stat. S. 4, 2, 24.—( ε ) Liberum est, with subject-clause: quam (opinionem) sequi magis probantibus liberum est, it is free, permitted, allowable, Quint. 6, 3, 112; Plin. Ep. 1, 8: dies eligere certos liberum erat, Plin. 30, 2, 6, § 16.—So in abl. absol.: libero, quid firmaret mutaretve, Tac. A. 3, 60. In partic. Free, in a social point of view, not a slave (opp. servus; also to ingenuus): neque vendendam censes quae libera est, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 40; cf. id. ib. v. 28: dis habeo gratiam quom aliquot affuerunt liberae, because slaves were not permitted to testify, id. And. 4, 4, 32; opp. ingenuus, free-born: quid ea? ingenuan' an festucā facta e servā liberast? Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 14: in jure civili, qui est matre liberā, liber est, Cic. N. D. 3, 18, 45; id. Caecin. 36, 96: si neque censu, neque vindictā, nec testamento liber factus est (servus), non est liber, id. Top. 2, 10: quae (assentatio) non modo amico, sed ne libero quidem digna est, of a freeman, id. Lael. 24, 89; Quint. 11, 1, 43: liberorum hominum alii ingenui sunt, alii libertini, Gai. Inst. 1, 10; cf. sqq.: ex ancilla et libero jure gentium servus nascitur, id. ib. 1, 82; cf. § 85; Paul. Sent. 2, 24, 1 sqq.

Free, in a political point of view; said both of a people not under monarchical rule and of one not in subjection to another people, Cic. Rep. 1, 32, 48; cf.: ut ex nimia potentia principum oritur interitus principum, sic hunc nimis liberum populum libertas ipsa servitute afficit, id. ib. 1, 44, 68: liber populus, id. ib. 3, 34, 46: (Demaratus) vir liber ac fortis, democratic, republican, fond of liberty, id. ib. 2, 19, 34: civitates liberae atque immunes, free from service, Liv. 37, 55: provinciae civitatesque liberae, Suet. Vesp. 8: libera ac foederata oppida, id. Calig. 3: Roma patrem patriae Ciceronem libera dixit, Juv. 8, 244.

In a bad sense, esp. with reference to sensual pleasure, unbridled, unchecked, unrestrained, licentious: quam liber harum rerum multarum siet (Juppiter), Plaut. Am. prol. 105: adulescens imprudens et liber, Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 40; cf.: sit adulescentia liberior, somewhat freer, Cic. Cael. 18, 42: amores soluti et liberi, id. Rep. 4, 4, 4: consuetudo peccandi, id. Verr. 2, 3, 76, § 177.—Hence, adv.: lībĕrē, freely, unrestrictedly, without let or hinderance; frankly, openly, boldly: qui nihil dicit, nihil facit, nihil cogitat denique, nisi libenter ac libere, Cic. Par. 5, 1, 34: animus somno relaxatus solute movetur et libere, id. Div. 2, 48, 100: respirare, id. Quint. 11, 39: constanter et libere (me gessi), id. Att. 4, 16, 9: consilium dare, id. Lael. 13, 44: aliquid magis accusatorie quam libere dixisse, id. Verr. 2, 2, 72, § 176: omnia libere fingimus et impune, Quint. 6, 1, 43: ut ingredi libere (oratio), non ut licenter videatur errare, Cic. Or. 23, 77.

Comp.: liberius vivendi fuit potestas, Ter. And. 1, 1, 23: loqui, Cic. Planc. 13, 33: fortius liberiusque defendere, Quint. 12, 1, 21: liberius si Dixero quid, Hor. S. 1, 4, 103: maledicere, id. ib. 2, 8, 37: longius et liberius exseritur digitus, Quint. 11, 3, 92; cf. id. 11, 3, 97: ipsaque tellus Omnia liberius, nullo poscente, ferebat, freely, of itself, spontaneously, Verg. G. 1, 127.