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magnus, magnus, a, um (archaic gen. magnai for magnae: magnai reipublicai gratia, Plaut. Mil. 2, 1, 23), adj.; comp. mājor, us; sup. maxĭmus (maxŭm-), a, um root magh-; Sanscr. mahat, mabā, great; Gr. μέγας ; cf. μείζων for μεγιων ; cf. μῆχος, majestas; also cf. root mak-; Gr. μακρός, and perh. μάκαρ, great, large. Lit., of physical size or quantity, great, large; of things, vast, extensive, spacious, etc.: nequam et magnus homo, a great, tall fellow, Lucil. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 32 Müll.; cf. the double meaning: tu, bis denis grandia libris Qui scribis Priami proelia, magnus homo es, a great man, Mart. 9, 51, 4: magna ossa lacertique Apparent homini, Lucil. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1: magna ossa lacertosque Exuit, Verg. A. 5, 422: (scarus) magnusque bonusque, Enn. ap. App. Mag. p. 299 (Heduph. v. 9 Vahl.): indu mari magno, id. ap. Macr. 6, 2 (Ann. v. 425 Vahl.); so, in mari magno, id. ap. Fest. p. 356 Müll.; cf. Lucr. 2, 554: magnus fluens Nilus, Verg. G. 3, 28; Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 2: magna et pulcra domus, spacious, Cic. N. D. 2, 6, 17: montes, Cat. 64. 280; cf. Olympum, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 20 Müll. (Ann. v. 1 Vahl.): templa caelitum, vast, id. ib. 7, § 6 (Trag. v. 227 Vahl.): magnae quercus, great oaks, lofty oaks, id. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Ann. v. 194 Vahl.): aquae, great floods, inundations, Liv. 24, 9: saxa maxima, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 16, 37: oppidum maximum, Caes. B. G. 1, 23.

Esp. Of measure, weight, quantity, great, much, abundant, considerable, etc.: maximum pondus auri, magnum numerum frumenti, vim mellis maximam exportasse, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 72, § 176: magna pecunia mutua, id. Att. 11, 3, 3: copia pabuli, Caes. B. G. 1, 16: multitudo peditatus, id. ib. 4, 34: divitiae, Nep. Dion. 1, 2: populus, Verg. A. 1, 148.

Rarely of time, for longus, multus: interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum, Verg. A. 3, 284: magnum vocans solis (annum) comparatione lunaris, Macr. S. 2, 11: magno post tempore, Just. 11, 10, 14; 32, 3, 10.

Of the voice, loud, powerful, strong, mighty: magnā voce confiteri, Cic. Caecin. 32, 92: major pars, the majority: tribunorum, Liv. 9, 46, 7. Trop. In gen., great, grand, mighty, noble, lofty, important, of great weight or importance, momentous: cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 207 Vahl.); cf.: Saturnia magna dearum, id. ap. Prisc. p. 1103 P. (Ann. v. 482 Vahl.): vir magnus in primis, Cic. N. D. 1, 43, 120: nemo igitur vir magnus sine aliquo adflatu divino umquam fuit, id. ib. 2, 66, 167: magnus hoc bello Themistocles fuit, nec minor in pace, Nep. Them. 6, 1: Cato clarus atque magnus habetur, Sall. C. 53, 1: amicus, great, wealthy, Juv. 6, 312: res magnas parvasque Eloqui, Enn. ap. Gell. 12, 4 (Ann. v. 244 Vahl.): virtus, Caes. B. G. 2, 15: infamia, Cic. Fam. 1, 1: eloquentia, gravitas, studium, contentio, id. ib.: multo major alacritas, studiumque pugnandi majus, Caes. B. G. 1, 46: causa, great, important, weighty, Cic. Dom. 1, 1: opus et arduum, id. Or. 10, 33.—Absol. in neutr, sing. and plur.: quamquam id magnum, et arduum est, something great, Cic. Fam. 6, 7, 6: magna Di curant (great things, important matters), parva neglegunt, id. N. D. 2, 66, 167: magna loqui, to say great things, speak boastfully, Tib. 2, 6, 11: magnum est efficere, ut quis intellegat, quid sit illud, etc., it is a great, difficult, important thing, Cic. Ac. 1, 2, 7: probitatem vel in eis, quos numquam vidimus, vel, quod majus est, in hoste etiam diligimus, what is far greater, id. Lael. 9, 29: annus magnus, the great year, at the end of which the sun, moon, and planets were supposed to return to the same relative positions, the Piatonic year or cycle, consisting of 15000 years: quarum (stellarum) ex disparibus motionibus, magnum annum mathematici nominaverunt, etc., Cic. N. D. 2, 20, 52; id. Fragm. ap. Tac. Or. 16.—Posit. in comparison: Alexander orbi magnus est, Alex. andro orbis angustus, great in comparison with, i. e. too great for, Sen. Suas. 1, 3.

In partic. Of age, with natu, advanced in years, of great age, aged: jam magno natu, Nep. Paus. 5; Liv. 3, 71, 3: homo magnus natu, id. 10, 38, 6.—Usually in the comp. and sup., with or without natu or annis, older, the elder, the oldest or eldest: qui (Livius) fuit major natu quam Plautus et Naevius, older than, earlier, Cic. Tusc. 1, 1, 3: audivi ex majoribus natu, id. Off. 1, 30, 109: hic una e multis, quae maxima natu, Pyrgo, Verg. A. 5, 644: annos natus major quadraginta, more than, Cic. Rosc. Am. 14, 39: civis major annis viginti, Suet. Caes. 42: cum liberis, majoribus quam quindecim annos natis, Liv. 45, 32.

Absol.: senis nostri frater major, the elder of two, Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 13: ex duobus filiis major, Caes B. C. 3, 108, 3: Fabii Ambusti filiae duae nuptae, Ser. Sulpicio major minor Licinio Stoloni erat, Liv. 6, 34: Gelo maximus stirpis, id. 23, 30: ut nubere vellet mulier viro, major juniori, App. Mag. 27, p. 291, 28; cf. in gen.: Cyrus major, Lact. 4, 5, 7: quaerere uter major aetate fuerit, Homerus an Hesiodus, cum minor Hecuba fuerit quam Helena, Sen. Ep. 88, 5.—In legal lang., major (opp. minor), one who has attained his twenty-fifth year, who is of age: si minor negotiis majoris intervenerit, Dig. 4, 4, 24.—In plur. subst.: mājō-res, um, m., adults (opp. pueri), Varr. L. L. 9, 10, § 16 Müll.—But usually majores, ancestors, forefathers: Itan tandem hanc majores famam tradiderunt tibi tui, Ut, etc., Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 16: ibi mei sunt majores siti, pater, avos, proavos, abavos, id. Mil. 2, 4, 20: L. Philippus, vir patre, avo, majoribus suis dignissimus, Cic. Phil. 3, 10, 25: patres majoresque nostri, id. Div. in Caecil. 21, 69: more majorum, id. Att. 1, 1, 1: spes tamen una est, aliquando populum Romanum majorum similem fore, id. Fam. 12, 22, 2: majores natu, Nep. Iphicr. 1, 1: maxima virgo, the eldest of the Vestal virgins, Ov. F. 4, 639: major erus, the old master, the master of the house, the old man (opp.: minor erus, the young master): Le. Ubinam est erus? Li. Major apud forum'st, minor hic est intus, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 63: majores natu, of the Senate: de istis rebus in patriā majores natu consulemus, Liv. 1, 32, 10.—In designating relationship, magnus denotes kindred of the fourth, major of the fifth, and maximus of the sixth degree; so, avunculus magnus, a great-uncle; amita magna, a greataunt; avunculus or amita major; avunculus maximus, amita maxima, etc.; v. h. vv., and cf. Dig. 38, 10, 10.

In specifications of value, in the neutr. absol., magni or magno, high, dear, of great value, at a high price, etc.; cf.: pretii majoris or maximi, higher, highest, very high: magni esse, to be highly esteemed, Cic. Fam. 13, 72, 2: magni aestimare, id. Tusc. 5, 7, 20: magni existimans interesse ad decus, to be of great consequence, id. N. D. 1, 4, 7: emere agros poterunt quam volent magno, id. Agr. 2, 13, 34: magno vendere, id. Verr. 2, 3, 30, § 71: conducere aliquid nimium magno, too high, too dear, id. Att. 1, 17, 9: magno illi ea cunctatio stetit, cost him dear, Liv. 2, 36.—Comp.: ornatus muliebris majoris pretii, Cic. Inv 1, 31, 51, rarely without pretii: multo majoris alapae mecum veneunt, dearer, higher, Phaedr. 2, 5, 25.—Sup.: te haec solum semper fecit maxumi, most highly prized, Ter And. 1, 5, 58: senatus auctoritatem sibi maximi videri, Cic. Att. 1, 14, 2: in majus, too greatly, too highly, greater than it is: extollere aliquid in majus, more highly than it deserves, Tac. A. 15, 30: celebrare, id. ib. 13, 8: nuntiare, id. H. 3, 38: credere, to believe a thing to be worse than it is, id. ib. 1, 18: accipere, to take a thing to be greater than it is, id. ib. 3, 8 init.: innotescere, in an exaggerated manner, id. ib 4, 50.—Also with abl., in majus vero ferri, Liv. 21, 32, 7.

Magnum and maximum, adverbially, greatly, loudly (ante- and post-class.): magnum clamat, greatly, with a loud voice, aloud, Plaut. Mil. 3, 2, 10: inclamare, Gell. 5, 9 < δ ): numquam potuisti mihi Magis opportunus advenire quam advenis, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 47: neque lac lacti magis est simile, quam ille ego similis est mei, id. Am. 2, 1, 54: ars magis magna atque uber, quam difficilis et obscura, Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 190: corpora magna magis quam firma, Liv. 5, 44, 4: vultu pulchro magis quam venusto, Suet. Ner. 51.—With the abl., Plaut. As. 3, 3, 114: neque ego hoc homine quemquam vidi magis malum, id. Ps. 4, 1, 27: ab secundis rebus magis etiam solito incauti, Liv. 5, 44, 6.—With compp. (adding to their force): ita fustibus sum mollior miser magis quam ullus cinaedus, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 8.

Without the addition of the second term. With verbs: ergo plusque magisque viri nunc gloria claret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 315 Vahl.): sapiunt magis, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 4: magis curae est, magisque afformido, ne, etc., id. ib. 4, 10, 3: magis metuant, id. Mil. 5, 44: tum magis id diceres, Fanni, si, etc., Cic. Lael. 7 fin.; cf. id. Rep. 1, 40, 62: cum Pompeius ita contendisset, ut nihil umquam magis, id. Fam. 1, 9, 20: magis velle, for malle: quod magis vellem evenire, Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 1; Val. Fl. 3, 270.

With substt.: non ex jure manum consertum sed magi' ferro, Enn. ap. Gell. 20, 10 (Ann. v. 276 Vahl.): magis aedilis fieri non potuisset, better, finer, Cic. Planc. 24, 60.

With pronn.: ecastor neminem hodie mage Amat corde atque animo suo, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 75.

With adjj. and advv. (so most freq.).—With adjj.: ut quadam magis necessaria ratione recte sit vivendum, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 2: magis anxius, Ov. M. 1, 182: hic magis tranquillu'st, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 55: nihil videtur mundius, nec magis compositum quicquam, nec magis elegans, Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 12: nemo fuit magis severus nec magis continens, id. ib. 2, 1, 21: quod est magis verisimile, Caes. B. G. 3, 13, 6: magis admirabilis oratio, Quint. 8, 3, 24: magis communia verba, id. 8, 2, 24 et saep.; rare: magis quam in aliis = praeter ceteros; nescio quo pacto magis quam in aliis suum cuique pulchrum est, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22, 63.

With advv.: magis aperte, Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 30: magis impense, id. ib. 5, 9, 36.—With compp. adding to their force: magis est dulcius, Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 22: magis majores nugae, id. Men. prol. 55: magis modum in majorem, id. Am. 1, 1, 145: contentiores mage erunt, id. Poen. 2, 15.

Strengthened. By etiam, multo, tanto, eo, hoc, quo, tam, quam; and negatively, nihilo: qualis in dicendo Hierocles Alabandeus, magis etiam Menecles, frater ejus, fuit, Cic. Brut. 95, 325; id. Off. 1, 21, 72: illud ad me, ac multo etiam magis ad vos, id. de Or. 2, 32, 139: tanto magis Dic, quis est? Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 28: ut quidque magis contemplor, tanto magis placet, id. Most. 3, 2, 146: vicina cacumina caelo, quam sint magis, tanto magis fument, Lucr. 6, 460: quanto ille plura miscebat, tanto hic magis in dies convalescebat, Cic. Mil. 9, 25: sed eo magis cauto est Opus, ne huc exeat, qui, etc., Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 22: atque eo magis, si, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 1, § 1: eoque magis quod, etc., id. Lael. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 1, 23; 1, 47; 3, 14; 5, 1: immo vero etiam hoc magis, quam illi veteres, quod, etc., Cic. Agr. 2, 35, 97: hoc vero magis properare Varro, ut, etc., Caes. B. C. 2, 20: quo magis cogito ego cum meo animo, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 13; Nep. Thras. 2: magis quam id reputo, tam magis uror, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 5: tam magis illa fremens ... Quam magis, etc., Verg. A. 7, 787: quanto mage ... tam magis, Lucr. 4, 81 sq.: quam magis in pectore meo foveo, quas meus filius turbas turbet ... magis curae est magisque afformido, ne, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 4, 10, 1; 4, 4, 27; id. Men. 1, 1, 19: quam magis te in altum capessis, tam aestus te in portum refert, id. As. 1, 3, 6: densior hinc suboles Quam magis, etc., Verg. G. 3, 309: cum Vercingetorix nihilo magis in aequum locum descenderet, Caes. B. G. 6, 53.

By reduplication: magis magisque, magis et magis, magis ac magis; and poet. also, magis magis, more and more: ex desiderio magis magisque maceror, Afran. ap. Charis. p. 182 P.: cum cotidie magis magisque perditi homines tectis ac templis urbis minarentur, Cic. Phil. 1, 2, 5; id. Fam. 2, 18, 2; 16, 21, 2; Sall. C. 5, 7; cf. Cic. Fil. Fam. 16, 21, 2: de Graecia cotidie magis et magis cogito, Cic. Att. 14, 18, 4; 16, 3, 1; id. Brut. 90, 308; Liv. 7, 32, 6; Sall. J. 8, 6: magis deinde ac magis, Suet. Vit. 10: post hoc magis ac magis, id. Gram. 3; for which also: magisque ac magis deinceps, id. Tit. 3; Tac. A. 14, 8; Sen. de Ira, 3, 1, 4; id. Ep. 114, 25; id. Ben. 2, 14, 4; Plin. Ep. 1, 12, 10; 7, 3, 4; 10, 28, 3.—Poet. also: magis atque magis, Verg. A. 12, 239; Cat. 68, 48: post, vento crescente, magis magis increbescunt, id. 64, 275; cf. Verg. G. 4, 311.

Pleon. With potius (anteclass.): magis decorum'st Libertum potius quam patronum onus in via portare, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 99: mihi magis lubet cum probis potius quam cum improbis vivere, id. Trin. 2, 1, 38.

With malle: quam cum lego, nihil malo quam has res relinquere; his vero auditis multo magis, Cic. Tusc. 1, 31, 76: finge enim malle eum magis suum consequi quam, etc., Dig. 17, 2, 52, § 10.

In partic.: non (neque) magis quam. To signify perfect equality between two enunciations, no more ... than; just as much ... as; or neg., no more ... than; just as little ... as: domus erat non domino magis ornamento quam civitati, i. e. just as much to the city as to its owner, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 5; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 4, 2: non Hannibale magis victo a se quam Q. Fabio, Liv. 22, 27, 2: conficior enim maerore, mea Terentia, nec me meae miseriae magis excruciant quam tuae vestraeque, Cic. Fam. 13, 3, 1; Liv. 9, 22.

Neg.: qui est enim animus in aliquo morbo ... non magis est sanus, quam id corpus, quod in morbo est, i. e. is just as far from being sound as a body, etc., Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 10: si aliquā in re Verris similis fuero, non magis mihi deerit inimicus quam Verri defuit, id. Verr. 2, 3, 69, § 162; id. Fam. 5, 12, 3; id. de Or. 2, 8, 31: non nascitur itaque ex malo bonum, non magis quam ficus ex olea, Sen. Ep. 87, 25; Quint. prooem. § 26: non magis Gaium imperaturum, quam per Baianum sinum equis discursurum, Suet. Calig. 19. —Ellipt.: nec eo magis lege liberi sunto, just as little from that as from the rest, Cic. Leg. 3, 4, 11.

For restricting the idea expressed in the clause with non magis, so that not more, according to a common figure of speech, = less; in Engl. not so much ... as; less ... than: deinde credas mihi affirmanti velim, me hoc non pro Lysone magis quam pro omnibus scribere, Cic. Fam. 13, 24; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 17: miserebat non poenae magis homines, quam sceleris, quo poenam meriti essent, Liv. 2, 5; 1, 28.

Magis minusve, magis aut minus, or magis ac minus; post-Aug. for the usual plus minusve, more or less: sed istud magis minusve vitiosum est pro personis dicentium, Quint. 11, 1, 27; Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 220: minora vero plerumque sunt talia, ut pro persona, tempore, loco, causa magis ac minus vel excusata debeant videri vel reprehendenda, Quint. 11, 1, 14; Plin. 37, 5, 18, § 67: quaedam tamen et nationibus puto magis aut minus convenire, Sen. Ep. 40, 11; cf.: quosdam minus aut magis osos veritatem, id. Suas. 1, 5: aut minus, aut magis, id. Ep. 82, 14.

With alius ... alio, etc.: ceterae philosophorum disciplinae, omnino alia magis alia, sed tamen omnes, one more than another, i. e. in different degrees, Cic. Fin. 3, 3, 11 Madvig. ad loc. (al.: alia magis, alia minus, v. Hand, Turs. III. p. 560): mihi videntur omnes quidem illi errasse ... sed alius alio magis, Cic. Fin. 4, 16, 43: sunt omnino omnes fere similes, sed declarant communis notiones, alia magis alia, id. Tusc. 4, 24, 53: alii aliis magis recusare, Liv. 29, 15, 11.—Sup.: max