Close Window

Lewis : multus

multus multus (old form moltus), a, um; comp. plus; sup. plurimus (v. at the end of this art.), adj. etym. dub., much, great, many, of things corporeal and incorporeal. Posit. In gen.: multi mortales, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17: multi suam rem bene gessere: multi qui, etc., Enn. ap. Cic. Fam. 7, 6, 1 (Trag. v. 295 sq. Vahl.): multi fortissimi viri, Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3: rationes, id. de Or. 1, 51, 222. tam multis verbis scribere, at such length, id. Fam. 3, 8, 1: beneficia. Cato ap. Fest. s. v. ratissima, p. 286 Müll.: multi alii, Ter. And. 5, 4, 28.—When used with another adjective it is usually connected with it by a conjunction: multae et magnae contentiones, many great conlests, Cic. Phil. 2, 3, 7; 3, 10, 26: O multas et graves offensiones, id. Att. 11, 7, 3: multi et graves dolores, id. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 119: multi et varii timores, Liv. 3, 16, 3: multae bonaeque artes animi, Sall. J. 28, 5: multa et clara facinora, Tac. A. 12, 31.—But when the second adjective is used substantively the conjunction is omitted: multi improbi, Cic. Off. 2, 8, 28; 2, 19, 65: multi boni, docti, prudentes, id. Fl. 4, 8: multi nobiles, id. Planc. 20, 50: multa acerba habuit ille annus, id. Sest. 27, 58; 66, 139: multa infanda, Liv. 28, 12, 5: multa falsa, id. 35, 23, 2.—Also, when the second adjective forms with its substantive a single conception: multa secunda proelia, victories, Liv. 9, 42, 5; 35, 1, 3; 41, 17, 1: multa libera capita, freemen, id. 42, 41, 11: multae liberae civitates, republics, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 30, § 68: multos fortes viros, id. Cat. 3, 2, 7; id. Mur. 8, 17: multi clari viri, noblemen, id. Leg. 1, 5, 17: multi primarii viri, id. Verr. 2, 2, 61, § 149.—Similarly, et is omitted between multi and adjectives which form with their substantives familiar phrases: multi clarissimi viri, Cic. Phil. 11, 10, 24: multi amplissimi viri, id. Fin. 2, 17, 55; id. Deiot. 14, 39; id. Fam. 10, 25, 2; id. Att. 10, 8, 7; 16, 16, 11; id. Verr. 1, 7, 19: multi honestissimi homines, id. Fam. 15, 15, 3: multi peritissimi homines, id. Caecin. 24, 69: multi summi homines, id. Arch. 12, 30; id. Har. Resp. 26, 56: multi clarissimi et sapientissimi viri, id. Planc. 4, 11; id. Cael. 18, 43.—Et is also omitted when the substantive stands between the two adjectives: in veteribus patronis multis, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 2: multa praeterea bella gravia, id. Agr. 2, 33, 90: multis suppliciis justis, id. Cat. 1, 8, 20: multa majores nostri magna et gravia bella gesserunt, id. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6: plurima signa pulcherrima, id. Verr. 2, 1, 23, § 61.—When both adjectives follow the substantive, et is sometimes inserted: virtutes animi multae et magnae, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 22, 64: causas ille multas et graves habuit, id. Clu. 30, 82; and is sometimes omitted, the emphasis then falling on the second adjective: utebatur hominibus improbis, multis, id. Cael. 5, 12: prodigia multa, foeda, Liv. 40, 29, 1.—With a partitive gen.: multi hominum, Plin. 16, 25, 40, § 96: multae silvestrium arborum, id. 16, 31, 56, § 128.—In neutr. plur.: multa, ōrum, many things, much: nimium multa, Cic. Fam. 4, 14, 3: nimis multa, id. Fin. 2, 18, 57: insulae non ita multae, not so many, not so very many, Plin. 5, 7, 7, § 41: parum multa scire, too few, Auct. Her. 1, 1, 1: bene multi, a good many, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 4: quam minime multa vestigia servitutis, as few as possible, Nep. Tim. 3, 3: minime multi remiges, exceedingly few, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 34, § 88: in multas pecunias alienissimorum hominum invasit, id. Phil. 2, 16, 41; id. Verr. 2, 5, 19, § 48: multae pecuniae variis ex causis a privatis detinentur, Plin. Ep. 10, 17, 3.—Sometimes multi stands for multi alii, many others: nam certe Pompeio, et a Curionibus patre et filio, et a multis exprobratum est, Suet. Caes. 50.—The sing. also is used poet. for the plur., many a: aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multā cane Apros in obstantes plagas, with many dogs, Hor. Epod. 2, 31: multa prece prosequi, id. C. 4, 5, 33: multā victima, Verg. E. 1, 34: agna. Ov. F. 4, 772: avis, id. Am. 3, 5, 4: tabella, Tib. 1, 3, 28; so of persons: multus sua vulnera puppi Affixit moriens, many a one, for multi affixerunt, Luc. 3, 707.—In sing., to denote quantity, much, great, abundant: multum aurum et argentum. Plaut. Rud. 5, 2, 8; 22: exstructa mensa multā carne rancidā, Cic. Pis. 27, 67: multo labore quaerere aliquid, with much labor, great exertion, Cic. Sull. 26, 73: cura, Sall. J. 7, 4: sol, much sun, Plin. 31, 7, 39, § 81: sermo, much conversalion, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 20, 1: stilus tuus multi sudoris est. Cic. de Or. 1, 60, 257: multo cibo et potione completi, id. Tusc. 5, 35, 100: multo sanguine ea Poenis victoria stetit, Liv. 23, 30, 2: multum sanguinem haurire, Curt. 4, 14, 17; 8, 14, 32: multam harenam mare evomit, id. 4, 6, 8: arbor, id. 7, 4, 26: silva, id. 8, 10, 14: multae vestis injectu opprimi, Tac. A. 6, 50: multa et lauta supellex, Cic. Phil. 2, 27, 66: aurum, Sall. J. 13, 6; Tac. A. 6, 33; Liv. 26, 11, 9; Curt. 3, 3, 12: libertas, Hor. S. 1, 4, 5: multam salutem dicere alicui, to greet heartily, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 194: cum auro et argento multo, Sall. J. 13, 6.—Of time: Itaque multum diei processerat, a great part of the day, Sall. J. 51, 2: ad multum diem, till far in the day, Cic. Att. 13, 9, 1: multo adhuc die, when much of the day was still remaining, when it was still high day, Tac. H. 2, 44: multo denique die, when the day was far spent, Caes. B. G. 1, 22: multā nocte, late at night, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 2: multo mane, very early, id. Att. 5, 4, 1: multa opinio, for multorum, the general opinion, Gell. 3, 16, 1: velut multā pace, as in a general peace, as if there were peace everywhere, Tac. H. 4, 35: multus homo, one who gives himself up to the lusts of many, Cat. 112, 1.—multi, ōrum, m., the many, the common mass, the multitude: probis probatus potius, quam multis forem, Att. ap. Non. 519, 9: video ego te, mulier, more multarum utier, id. ib.—Esp.: unus e (or de) multis, one of the multitude, a man of no distinction: tenuis L. Virginius unusque e multis, Cic. Fin. 2, 20, 62: unus de multis esse, id. Off. 1, 30, 109: M. Calidius non fuit orator unus e multis; potius inter multos prope singularis fuit, id. Brut. 79, 274: numerarer in multis, among the herd of orators, id. ib. 97, 333: e multis una sit tibi, no better than others, Ov. R. Am. 682: multum est, it is of importance, Verg. G. 2, 272.—In neutr. absol.: ne multa, or ne multis, not to be prolix, in short: ne multa: perquiritur a coactoribus, Cic. Clu. 64, 181: ne multis: Diogenes emitur, id. ib. 16, 47: quid multis moror? Ter. And. 1, 1, 87.—Sometimes multa is used (particularly by the poets) adverbially, much, greatly, very: multa reluctari, Verg. G. 4, 301: gemens, id. ib. 3, 226; id. A. 5, 869: deos testatus, id. ib. 7, 593: invehi, Nep. Ep. 6, 1 (cf. nonnulla invehi, id. Tim. 5, 3): haud multa moratus, Verg. A. 3, 610.—Rarely in multum: in multum velociores, by far, Plin. 10, 36, 52, § 108.

In partic. Too much, overmuch, excessive: supellex modica, non multa, Nep. Att. 13, 5.

In speech, much-speaking, diffuse, prolix: qui in aliquo genere aut inconcinnus aut multus est, Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 17: ne in re notā et pervulgatā multus et insolens sim, id. ib. 2, 87, 358: nolo in stellarum ratione multus vobis videri, id. N. D. 2, 46, 119.

Frequent, frequently present: in operibus, in agmine, atque ad vigilias multus adesse, Sall. J. 96, 3: multus in eo proelio Caesar fuit, was in many places, Flor. 4, 2, 50: hen hercle hominem multum et odiosum mihi! troublesome, tedious, Plaut. Men. 2, 2, 41: instare, Sall. J. 84, 1.—Hence, adv., in two forms. multum, much, very much, greatly, very, often, frequently, far, etc. (class. πλέον, πίμπλημι ; cf. plenus, plera, compleo, etc.; also locu-ples, plebes, populus, etc.], more. In the sing. (used both substantively and adverbially): LIBRAS FARRIS ENDO DIES DATO. SI VOLET PLVS DATO, Fragm. XII. Tab. in Gell. 20, 1, 45: SI PLVS MINVSVE SECVERVNT, SE FRAVDE ESTO, ib.; so (perh. in imitation of this legal phrase): ebeu, cur ego plus minusve feci quam aequom fuit! Plaut. Capt. 5, 3, 18; Ter. Phorm. 3, 3, 21: ne plus minusve loqueretur, Suet. Aug. 84; cf. Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 27; and in the signif. of circiter, about: septingenti sunt paulo plus aut minus anni ... postquam, etc., Enn. ap. Varr. R. R. 3, 1, 2 (Ann. v. 493 Vahl.); so. non longius abesse plus minus octo milibus, Hirt. B. G. 8, 20, 1 Oud.; cf.: speranti plures ... venerunt plusve minusve duae, Mart. 8, 71, 4: aut ne quid faciam plus, quod post me minus fecisse satius sit, too much ... too little, Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 4: tantum et plus etiam ipse mihi deberet, Cic. Att. 7, 3, 7: vos et decem numero, et, quod plus est, Romani estis, and what is more, Liv. 9, 24, 8: verbane plus an sententia valere debeat, Cic. Top. 25, 96: cf.: apud me argumenta plus quam testes valent, id. Rep. 1, 38, 59: valet enim salus plus quam libido, id. ib. 1, 40, 63.

With a partitive gen.: vultis pecuniae plus habere, Cic. Inv. 1, 47, 88; cf.: nostri casus plus honoris habuerunt quam laboris, id. Rep. 1, 4, 7; so, plus virium, id. Leg. 1, 2, 6: plus hostium, Liv. 2, 42: plus dapis et rixae multo minus invidiaeque, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 51: in hac causā eo plus auctoritatis habent, quia, etc., Cic. Rep. 3, 16, 26; cf.: plus ingenii, id. ib. 1, 14, 22: Albano non plus animi erat quam fidei, as little courage as fidelity, Liv. 1, 27, 5.

With quam (some examples of which have already been given above): non plus quam semel, Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61: confiteor eos ... plus quam sicarios esse, id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: ne plus reddat quam acceperit, id. Lael. 16, 58 et saep.: non plus quam in tres partis posse distribui putaverunt, into not more than, id. Inv. 1, 34, 57: plus quam decem dies abesse, id. Phil. 2, 13, 31: nulla (navis) plus quam triginta remis agatur, with more than, Liv. 38, 38, 8.

Without quam: HOMINES PLOVS V. OINVORSEI VIREI ATQVE MVLIERES, S. C. de Bacch. 19 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): plus mille capti, Liv. 24, 44: plus milies audivi, Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 32: plus semel, Varr. ap. Plin. 14, 14, 17, § 96: plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi, Ter. Ad. 2, 1, 46: ferre plus dimidiati mensis cibaria, Cic. Tusc. 2, 16, 37: non plus mille quingentos aeris, id. Rep. 2, 22, 40: paulo plus ducentos passus a castris, Liv. 31, 34: cum plus annum aeger fuisset, id. 40, 2: parte plus dimidiā rem auctam, id. 29, 25.—( ε ) With a compar. or adverbial abl., or with an abl. of measure: VIREI PLOVS DVOBVS, S. C. de Bacch. 20 (Wordsw. Fragm. and Spec. p. 173): de paupertate tacentes Plus poscente ferent, more than the importunate, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 44: ex his alius alio plus habet virium, Cic. Leg. 1, 2, 6: cave putes hoc tempore plus me quemquam cruciari, Balb. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 15, A, 2: alterum certe non potest, ut plus una vera sit, Cic. N. D. 1, 2, 5; cf.: in columbā plures videri colores, nec esse plus uno, id. Ac. 2, 25, 79: HOC PLVS NE FACITO, more than this, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23, 59: annos sexaginta natus es Aut plus eo, or more than that, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 11: plus aequo, Cic. Lael. 16, 58: plus paulo, Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 8: paulo plus, Liv. 31, 34: multo plus, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 10, 8, A, 1: plus nimio, overmuch, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 30: quam molestum est uno digito plus habere, too much by a finger, i. e. a finger too much, Cic. N. D. 1, 35, 99: uno plus Etruscorum cecidisse in acie, one man more, Liv. 2, 7, 2.

In the gen. pretii, pluris, of more value, of a higher price, for more, higher, dearer: ut plus reddant musti et olei, et pretii pluris, of greater value, Varr. R. R. 1, 7, 4: ager multo pluris est, is worth much more, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; cf.: quo pluris sint nostra oliveta, id. Rep. 3, 9, 16: pluris emere, dearer, id. Fam. 7, 2, 1; so, vendere, id. Off. 3, 12, 51; id. Verr. 2, 3, 19, § 48; Hor. S. 2, 3, 300: aedificare, Col. 1, 4, 7: pluris est oculatus testis quam auriti decem, of more value, Plaut. Truc. 2, 6, 8: mea mihi conscientia pluris est, quam omnium sermo, Cic. Att. 12, 28, 2: facio pluris omnium hominem neminem, id. ib. 8, 2, 4: facere aliquem pluris, make more of one, esteem him more highly, id. Fam. 3, 4, 2: pluris habere, id. Phil. 6, 4, 10: aestimare, id. Par. 6, 2, 48: ducere, id. Att. 7, 3, 5: putare, id. Off. 3, 4, 18 et saep.

Rarely, instead of the genitive, in the abl. pretii: plure vendunt, Lucil. ap. Charis. 2, p. 189 P.: plure altero tanto, quanto ejus fundus est, velim, Plaut. ib.: plure venit, Cic. ib.

Plus plusque, more and more: quem mehercule plus plusque in dies diligo. Cic. Att. 6, 2, 10.—* Like magis, with an adj.: plus formosus, for formosior, Nemes. Ecl. 4, 72.

In the plur. Comparatively, more in number: omnes qui aere alieno premantur, quos plures esse intellego quam putāram, Cic. Att. 7, 3, 5; id. Rep. 2, 22, 40: nemini ego plura acerba esse credo ex amore homini umquam oblata quam mihi, Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 1: ne plura insignia essent imperii in libero populo quam in regno fuissent, Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 55: multo plura, many more things, Quint. 3, 6, 28.

In gen., of a great number, many: qui plus fore dicant in pluribus consilii quam in uno. Cic. Rep. 1, 35, 55: cf.: quid quaeso interest inter unum et plures, si justitia est in pluribus? id. ib. 1, 39, 61; 1, 34, 52: non possunt unā in civitate multi rem ac fortunas amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem trahant calamitatem, id. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19: quod pluribus praesentibus eas res jactari nolebat, Caes. B. G. 1, 18: plura castella Pompeius tentaverat, id. B. C. 3, 52: summus dolor plures dies manere non potest, Cic. Fin. 2, 28, 93: pluribus diebus, Quint. prooem. § 7: illic plurium rerum est congeries, id. 8, 4, 27: quae consuetudo sit, pluribus verbis docere, Cic. Clu. 41, 115: eum pluribus verbis rogat, ut, etc., id. Verr. 2, 4, 28, § 64; without verba: quid ego plura dicam? id. de Or. 1, 5, 18: pluribus haec exsecutus sum, Phaedr. 3, 10, 59; also elliptically, quid plura? and, ne plura, like quid multa? and ne multa: hic sacra, hic genus, hic majorum multa vestigia. Quid plura? hanc vides villam, etc., what need of many words? in short, Cic. Leg. 2, 1, 3: sed—ne plura—dicendum enim aliquando est—Pomponium Atticum sic amo, ut alterum fratrem, id. Fam. 13, 1, 5.

Esp.: plures. The mass, the multitude, opp. pauciores, = οἱ ὀλίγοι, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 13.

Euphemistically, acc. to the Gr. οἱ πλείονες, the dead: quin prius Me ad plures penetravi? Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 14.

The greater number, the majority: plures nesciebant quā ex causā convenissent, Vulg. Act. 19, 32. Sup.: plūrĭmus (archaic form, plisima plurima, Paul. ex Fest. p. 204 and 205 Müll.: PLIOIRVME (I), Epit. of Scipio), a, um [from root ple; whence also plus, q. v., ploirumus for ploisumus; and thence the predominant form plurimus], most, very much, or many (as an adj. in good prose mostly in the plur., except the standing formula of greeting: salutem plurimam dicere alicui; v. infra): hujus sunt plurima simulacra, Caes. B. G. 6, 17: nos plurimis ignotissimi gentibus, Cic. Rep. 1, 17, 26: plurimae et maximae partes, id. ib. 1, 4, 8: plurimorum seculorum memoria, id. ib. 3, 9, 14: haec plurimis a me verbis dicta sunt, id. ib. 1, 7, 12 et saep.—In sing.: me plurimā praedā onustum, Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 4: sermo, Quint. 2, 2, 5: risus, id. 6, 3, 85: res, id. 6, 1, 51: exercitatio, id. 8 prooem. § 28: mons, very large, Verg. A. 1, 419: cervix, id. G. 3, 52: Aetna, Ov. Ib. 600.—Of a greeting: impertit salutem plurimam, Lucil. ap. Non. 472. 16; and esp. freq.: salutem plurimam dicit (commonly abbrev. S. P. D.) at the beginning of letters; v. salus.

Poet.: medio cum plurimus orbe Sol erat, very powerful, oppressive, Ov. M. 14, 53: plurima quā silva est. thickest, id. ib. 14, 361: coma plurima, very thick, id. ib. 13, 844: sed plurima nantis in ore Alcyone conjux, mostly, chiefly, id. ib. 11, 562.—And collect.: plurimus in Junonis honorem Aptum dicet equis Argos, many a one, very many, Hor. C. 1, 7, 8; so, oleaster plurimus, Verg. G. 2, 183: quā plurima mittitur ales, Mart. 9, 56, 1: plurima lecta rosa est, Ov. F. 4, 441.

In neutr. absol. (substant. or adverb.): ut haberet quam plurimum, as much as possible, Cic. Rab. Post. 14, 39: caput autem est, quam plurimum scribere, id. de Or. 1, 33, 150: ut in quoque oratore plurimum esset, id. Rep. 1, 27, 123.—Adv.: plūrĭmum: et is valebat in suffragio plurimum, cujus plurimum intererat, esse in optimo statu civitatem, Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 40: auspiciis plurimum obsecutus est Romulus, id. ib. 2, 9, 16: si vero populus plurimum potest, id. ib. 3, 14, 23; cf.: qui apud me dignitate plurimum possunt, id. Rosc. Am. 1, 4: plurimum aliis praestare, id. Inv. 2, 1, 1: ut te plurimum diligam, id. Fam. 1, 7, 1; id. Tusc. 5, 27, 78: hoc ego utor uno omnium plurimum, id. Fam. 11, 16, 2: quantum (al. quanto) plurimum possunt, Quint. 11, 3, 120: plurimum quantum also signifies very much indeed, exceedingly (post-class.): plurimum quantum veritati nocuere, Min. Fel. Oct. 22: gratulor, id. ib. 40: (elleborum) ex aquā datur plurimum drachma, at the most, Plin. 25, 5, 22, § 54; 9, 36, 60, § 125; 30, 6, 16, § 48; so, cum plurimum, id. 2, 17, 15, § 78 (opp. to cum minimum); 18, 7, 10, § 60: nec tam numerosa differentia; tribus ut plurimum bonitatibus distat, for the most part, commonly, usually, = plerumque, Plin. 15, 3, 4, § 18.

In neutr. with a partit. gen.: sententiarum et gravitatis plurimum, Cic. Inv. 1, 18, 25: artis, Quint. 10, 5, 3: auctoritatis et ponderis, id. 9, 4, 91: ut laboris sic utilitatis etiam longe plurimum, id. 10, 3, 1: virtutum, id. 12, 1, 20 plurimum quantum favoris partibus dabat fratermtas ducum, Flor. 4, 2, 74.

In the gen. pretii: plurimi: immo unice unum plurimi pendit, values very highly, esteems very much, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 2, 29: quem unum Alexander plurimi fecerat, Nep. Eum. 2, 2: ut quisque quod plurimi est possidet, Cic. Par. 6, 2, 48.