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ne nē (old forms nei and ni; v. the foll.), adv. and conj., the primitive Latin negative particle, no, not; whereas the negative particle non is a derivative (v. non init.) [prob. of pronominal origin; cf. the Anglo-Saxon na and ne (Engl. no), whence naht (Engl. not) is derived; Sanscr. na, not]. Adv., with a single word of a proposition (in early Latin): NE MINVS TRINVM NOVNDINVM, not less than, etc., S. C. de Bacch.; cf. with DVM NE MINVS SENATORIBVS C. ADESENT, twice in the same S. C.; and in the form ni: DVM NI MINVS VIGINTI ADSIENT, Inscr. Grut. 207, 3. So too: DVM NE AMPLIOREM MODVM PRATORVM HABEANT QVAM, etc., Inscr. Orell. 3121 (Sententia de finibus inter Genuates et Viturios regundis lata A. U. C. 637). So, ne minores (verres) quam semestres, Varr. R. R. 2, 4, 21. In the time of Plautus the usage was unsettled, non and ne being used indifferently for simple negation; cf. Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 105; Brix ad Plaut. Trin. 1156.

To this is allied the adverbial use of ne in all periods of the language. Ne ... quidem, applies the negation with emphasis to the word between them, not even: ne sues quidem id velint, non modo ipse, Cic. Tusc. 1, 38, 92: ne in oppidis quidem ... ne in fanis quidem, id. Verr. 2, 4, 1, § 2: Philippus non item: itaque ne nos quidem, id. Att. 14, 12, 2: nulla ne minima quidem aura fluctus commovente, id. Tusc. 5, 6, 16: non potest dici satis, ne cogitari quidem, quantum, etc., id. Mil. 29, 78: vita beata, quam ne in deo quidem esse censes, nisi, etc., id. N. D. 1, 24, 67: ut in foro et in judicio ... ne non timere quidem sine aliquo timore possimus, id. Mil. 1, 2: ne tondere quidem Vellera possunt, Verg. G. 3, 561; so after a negative, repeating it with emphasis: non enim praetereundum est ne id quidem, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 60, § 155: nulla species ne excogitari quidem potest ornatior, id. de Or. 3, 45, 179: non praetermittam ne illud quidem, id. Q. Fr. 2, 5, 2: Caesar negat se ne Graeca quidem meliora legisse, id. ib. 2, 16, 5: numquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi, id. Lael. 27, 103; Liv. 28, 42, 16; but when ne ... quidem precedes, the negative of the principal verb is omitted: sine quā ne intellegi quidem ulla virtus potest, Cic. Tusc. 2, 13, 31: neque enim ipsius quidem regis abhorrebat animus, Liv. 29, 12, 10: ne quidem (with no intervening word), not even (late Lat.), Gai Inst. 1, 67; id. ib. 3, 93.

In composition, to make an absolute negation of the principal idea. So in neque and nequiquam; also in nescio and nevolo; and in nefas, nefandus, nepus (for non purus), nequeo, neuter, neutiquam; in nemo, nego, nihil, nullus, numquam, and nusquam; and, lastly, with a paragogic c before o: necopinans and neglego; negotium (i. e. nec-lego; nec-otium).

With a proposition (in all periods of the language, and exclusively), In imperative sentences, to signify that something must not be done. With imper.: SI HOMINEM FVLMEN IOVIS OCCISIT, NE SVPRA GENVA TOLLITOR, let him not be raised, Leg. Reg.: HOMINEM MORTVVM IN VRBE NE SEPELITO NEVE VRITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Cic. Leg. 2, 23; cf.: MVLIERES GENAS NE RADVNTO NEVE LESSVM FVNERIS ERGO HABENTO, ib.: SI NOLET, ARCERAM NE STERNITO, let him not spread, he need not spread, ib. (cf. Gell. 20, 1, 25): VECTIGAL INVITEI DARE NEI DEBENTO, Inscr. Orell. 3121; cf. art. ni, II.: abi, ne jura: satis credo, Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 20; 4, 5, 5: ah, ne saevi tantopere, Ter. And. 5, 2, 27: impius ne audeto placare donis iram deorum, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22: ne, pueri, ne tanta animis assuescite bella, Verg. A. 6, 832.

With subj.: ne me moveatis, Plaut. Mil. 4, 9, 1: si certum est facere, facias: verum ne post conferas Culpam in me, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 96: si denique veritas extorquebit, ne repugnetis, Cic. Clu. 2, 6: ne pudori Sit tibi Musa lyrae sollers, Hor. A. P. 406.

In wishes and asseverations: ne id Juppiter Opt. Max. sineret, etc., might Jupiter forbid it! etc., Liv. 4, 2; cf.: ne istuc Juppiter Opt. Max. sirit, etc., id. 28, 28.—With utinam: utinam ne in nemore Pelio securibus Caesa accedisset abiegna ad terram trabes, would that not, Enn. ap. Cic. Top. 16, 61 (Trag. v. 280 Vahl.): utinam ne umquam, Mede Colchis cupido corde pedem extulisses, Enn ap. Non. 297, 18 (Trag. v. 311 ib.): illud utinam ne vere scriberem! Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 3; v. utinam.—With si: ne vivam, si scio, may I not live, may I die, if I know, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 8: sed ne vivam, si tibi concedo, id. Fam. 7, 23, 19: ne sim salvus, si aliter scribo ac sentio, id. ib. 16, 13, 1.

In concessive and restrictive clauses (conceived as softened commands; cf. II. init.). In concessions, nemo is, inquies, umquam fuit. Ne fuerit: ego enim, etc., there may not have been; suppose there was not, Cic. Or. 29, 101; cf.: pugnes omnino, sed cum adversario facili. Ne sit sane: videri certe potest, id. Ac. 2, 26, 85; 2, 32, 102: ne sit sane summum malum dolor: malum certe est, id. Tusc. 2, 5, 14: ne sint in senectute vires: ne postulantur quidem vires a senectute, id. Sen. 11, 34: ne sit igitur sol, ne luna, ne stellae, quoniam nihil esse potest, nisi quod attigimus aut vidimus, id. N. D. 1, 31, 88; Liv. 31, 7: nec porro malum, quo aut oppressus jaceas, aut, ne opprimare, mente vix constes? though you be not crushed; supposing you are not crushed, Cic. Tusc. 4, 17, 39.

In restrictive clauses: sint sane liberales ex sociorum fortunis, sint misericordes in furibus aerarii, ne illi sanguinem nostrum largiantur, etc., only let them not; if they only will not, Sall. C. 52, 12. So, dum ne, dummodo ne, modo ne, and dum quidem ne; v. dum and modo: me vero nihil istorum ne juvenem quidem movit umquam: ne nunc senem, much less now I am old = nedum, Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 2; cf.: vix incedo inanis, ne ire posse cum onere existumes, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 174: scuta si homines inviti dant, etsi ad salutem communem dari sentiunt: ne quem putetis sine maximo dolore argentum caelatum domo protulisse, much less can you suppose, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 23, § 52; Liv. 3, 52.

In clauses which denote a purpose or result. Ut ne, that not, lest, so that not (very rare after the August. period; in Livy only in a few doubtful passages; in Cæsar, Seneca, and Tacitus not at all; v. under II.): quos ego ope meā Pro incertis certos ... Dimitto, ut ne res temere tractent turbidas, Enn. ap. Cic. de Or. 1, 45, 199 (Trag v. 189 Vahl.): vestem ut ne inquinet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 17. pergunt turbare usque, ut ne quid possit conquiescere, id. Most. 5, 1, 12: haec mihi nunc cura est maxima, ut ne cui meae Longinquitas aetatis obstet, Ter. Hec. 4, 2, 19: ego, pol, te ulciscar, ut ne impune nos illuseris, id. Eun. 5, 4, 19: excitandam esse animadversionem et diligentiam, ut ne quid inconsiderate negligenterque agamus, Cic. Off. 1, 29, 103: equidem soleo dare operam, ut de suā quisque re me ipse doceat, et, ut ne quis alius assit, quo, etc., id. de Or. 2, 24, 102.

Ut ... ne separated: quam plurimis de rebus ad me velim scribas, ut prorsus ne quid ignorem, Cic. Att. 3, 10, 3: ut causae communi salutique ne deessent, id. Verr. 2, 4, 63, § 140: lata lex est, ne auspicia valerent, ut omnibus fastis diebus legem ferri liceret: ut lex Aelia, lex Fufia ne valeret, id. Sest. 15, 33; id. N. D. 1, 7, 17: vos orant atque obsecrant, judices, ut in actore causae suae deligendo vestrum judicium ab suo judicio ne discrepet, id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 14.

Qui ne, quo ne, and quomodo ne (ante- and post-class. for ut ne): ego id agam, mihi qui ne detur, Ter. And. 2, 1, 35: moxque ad aram, quo ne hostis dolum persentisceret, aversusque a duce assistit, Dict. Cret. 4, 11: quaeritis maximis sumptibus faciendis, quomodo ne tributa conferatis, Gr. ὡς μή, Rutil. Lup. 1, 9. In the several uses of the adv. ne, described above, the transition to its use to connect clauses is clearly seen (v. esp. I. B. 3. and 4.). In intentional clauses, and after verbs of fearing and avoiding, ne becomes a conjunction. In intentional clauses for ut ne, that not, lest: nolite, hospites, ad me adire: ilico isti! Ne contagio mea bonis umbrave obsit, approach me not; let not my presence harm you, i. e. lest my presence should harm you, Enn. ap. Cic. Tusc. 3, 12, 26 (Trag. v. 405 Vahl.): omitto innumerabiles viros, quorum singuli saluti huic civitati fuerunt ... ne quis se aut suorum aliquem praetermissum queratur, Cic. Rep. 1, 1, 1; 1, 7, 12; 1, 5, 9: Caesarem complexus obsecrare coepit, ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret, Caes. B. G. 1, 20.—Esp. after verbs expressing forethought, care, etc.: vide sis, ne quid imprudens ruas, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 128: considera, ne in alienissimum tempus cadat adventus tuus, Cic. Fam. 15, 14, 4: Cocceius, vide, ne frustretur, Cic. Att. 12, 18, 3 et saep.

After verbs signifying to fear, frighten, etc. (esp. metuo, timeo, vereor, horreo, paveo, terreo, conterreo; also, timor est, metus est, spes est, periculum est), to express the wish that something may not take place; represented in English by that (because in English the particle depends on the idea of fearing, not of wishing): metuo et timeo, ne hoc tandem propalam flat, that it will be discovered, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 38: timeo ne malefacta mea sint inventa omnia, id. Truc. 4, 2, 61: vereor ne quid Andria apportet mali, Ter. And. 1, 1, 46: metuebat ne indicarent, Cic. Mil. 21, 57: mater cruciatur et sollicita est, ne filium spoliatum omni dignitate conspiciat, id. Mur. 41, 88: hic ne quid mihi prorogetur, horreo, id. Att. 5, 21, 3: id paves, ne ducas tu illam, tu autem ut ducas, Ter. And. 2, 2, 12: esse metus coepit, ne, etc., Ov. M. 7, 715: terruit gentīs, grave ne rediret Saeculum Pyrrhae, Hor. C. 1, 2, 5: non periclumst, nequid recte monstres, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 55: pavor ceperat milites, ne mortiferum esset vulnus, Liv. 24, 42— When the dependent clause is negative, with non or nihil, that not: vereor ne exercitum firmum habere non possit, Cic. Att. 7, 12, 2: unum vereor ne senatus Pompeium nolit dimittere, id. ib. 5, 18, 1: timeo ne non impetrem, id. ib. 9, 6, 6; id. Tusc. 1, 31, 76.

With the negative before the verb: non vereor, ne quid temere facias, Cic. Fam. 2, 7, 1; 2, 1, 4: timere non debeo, ne non iste illā cruce dignus judicetur, id. Verr. 2, 5, 67, § 171.

After verbs signifying to avoid, warn, hinder, forbid, refuse (caveo, impedio, resisto, interdico, refuto, rarely veto), instead of the simple object, that not, lest: qui cavet, ne decipiatur, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5: cavete, judices, ne nova proscriptio instaurata esse videatur, Cic. Rosc. Am. 53, 153; id. Fam. 3, 12, 4; v. caveo: casus quidam ne facerem impedivit, Cic. Fat. 1, 1: unus ne caperetur urbs causa fuit, Liv. 34, 39.