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Lewis : neque

neque nĕque or nec (used indifferently before vowels and consonants. The notion that nec in class. prose stands only before consonants is wholly unfounded. Ap. Cic. in the Rep. alone we find nec nineteen times before vowels; viz.: nec accipere, 3, 13, 23: nec alios, 2, 37, 62: nec enim, 1, 24, 38; 6, 25, 27: nec esset, 5, 5, 7: nec ex se, 6, 24, 27: nec id, 1, 1, 1: nec inportatis, 2, 15, 29: nec in, 6, 23, 25: nec inconstantiam, 3, 11, 18: nec injussu, 6, 15, 15: nec ipsius, 1, 26, 41: nec ipsum, 6, 24, 27: nec ulla, 1, 34, 51: nec ullo, 1, 37, 58: nec una, 2, 1, 2: nec hic, 3, 33, 45: nec hominis, 2, 21, 37: nec hunc, 6, 25, 29. Cf. also such passages as neque reliquarum virtutum, nec ipsius rei publicae, Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 41: dabo tibi testes nec nimis antiquos nec ullo modo barbaros, id. ib. 1, 37, 58: nec atrocius ... neque apertius, id. Tull. 1, 2: nec homo occidi nec consulto, etc., id. ib. 14, 34. The true distinction is, that in the form nec the negation is more prominent; in the form neque, the connective force of the particle; cf. Hand, Turs. 4, p. 94 sq.), adv. and conj. [ne-que], not; and not, also not. Adv., like ne, in ante-class. Latinity (v. ne, I.) as a general negative particle, = non, not (usually in the form nec. In class. Lat. this usage seems to be confined to certain formulae, as nec opinans, nec procul abesse, nec mancipi, etc.; v. infra): nec conjunctionem grammatici fere dicunt esse disjunctivam, ut: nec legit, nec scribit: cum si diligentius inspiciatur, ut fecit Sinnius Capito, intellegi possit, eam positam esse ab antiquis pro non, ut et in XII. est: AST EI CVSTOS NEC ESCIT, Paul. ex Fest. p. 162 Müll.: SI INTESTATO MORITVR, CVI SVVS HERES NEC SIT, etc., Lex XII. Tab. (v. App. III. tab. 5): SI AGNATVS NEC ESCIT, etc., ib.: magistratus nec obedientem civem coërceto, Cic. Leg. 3, 3, 6: senatori, qui nec aderit, culpa esto, id. ib. 3, 4, 11: bruti nec satis sardare queunt, Naev. 1, 4; 1, 7: tu dis nec recte dicis: non aequum facis, Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 11: nec recte, id. As. 1, 3, 3; 2, 4, 65; id. Most. 1, 3, 83; Cat. 30, 4: alter, qui nec procul aberat, Liv. 1, 25, 10: nec ullus = nullus: cui Parcae tribuere nec ullo vulnere laedi, Verg. Cir. 269: differentia mancipi rerum et nec mancipi, Gai. Inst. 2, 18 sq. —Form neque: si quid tibi in illisce suovitaurilibus lactentibus neque satisfactum est, etc., an old formula of prayer in Cato, R. R. 141, 4: neque opinantes insidiatores, Auct. B. Afr. 66; Auct. B. Alex. 75. Conj., in all periods and kinds of composition. In gen., = et non, and not, also not. Alone. When the negative applies to the principal verb of the clause: multumque laborat, Nec respirandi fit copia, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 3 (Ann. v. 437 Vahl.): illa quae aliis sic, aliis secus, nec iisdem semper uno modo videntur, ficta esse dicimus, Cic. Leg. 1, 17, 47: delubra esse in urbibus censeo, nec sequor magos Persarum, quibus, etc., id. ib. 2, 10, 26; id. N. D. 1, 29, 81; id. Rep. 2, 1, 2: quae mei testes dicunt, quia non viderunt nec sciunt, id. Tull. 10, 24: non eros nec dominos appellabant eos ... sed patres et deos. Nec sine causā. Quid enim? etc., id. Rep. 1, 41, 64: illa, nec invideo, fruitur meliore marito, Ov. H. 2, 79.

Less freq. when the negative applies to some other word: nec inventas illas toto orbe pares vires gloriatur, Just. 11, 9, 5: et vidi et perii, nec notis ignibus arsi, Ov. H. 12, 33: Anguibus exuitur tenui cum pelle vetustas, Nec faciunt cervos cornua jacta senes ( = et faciunt non senes), id. A. A. 3, 77: neque eum aequom facere ait, Ter. Phorm, 1, 2, 64: nec dubie ludibrio esse miserias suas, Liv. 2, 23, 14; 2, 14, 2; esp. in the phrases nec idcirco minus, nec eo minus, nec eo secius, neque eo magis; thus: nec idcirco minus, Cic. de Or. 2, 35, 151: neque eo minus, Liv. 41, 8, 8; Suet. Oth. 2; id. Vesp. 24: neque eo secius, Nep. Att. 2, 2: neque eo magis, id. Eum. 4, 2; id. Paus. 3, 5; id. Att. 8, 5: cum consules in Hernicos exercitum duxissent, neque inventis in agro hostibus, Ferentinum urbem cepissent, Liv. 7, 9, 1.

So, nec ullus, nec quisquam, for et nullus, et nemo, etc.: nec ullo Gallorum ibi viro, etc., Liv. 38, 25, 3; Tac. Agr. 16: nec quidquam magis quam ille, etc., Curt. 4, 2, 8.

With vero, enim, autem, tamen: neque vero hoc solum dixit, sed ipse et sentit et fecit, Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 229: nec vero jam meo nomine abstinent, id. Rep. 1, 3, 6: nec enim respexit, etc., id. Clod. et Cur. 4, 4; id. Lael. 10, 32: neque enim tu is es, qui, qui sis nescias, id. Fam. 5, 12, 6: nec tamen didici, etc., id. Rep. 2, 38, 64: neque autem ego sum ita demens, ut, etc., id. Fam. 5, 12, 6.

In partic. Nec = ne ... quidem, not even (in Liv. and later writers; in Cic. dub. since B. and K. read ne ... quidem, Cic. Ac. 1, 2, 7; id. Tusc. 1, 26, 65; id. Cat. 2, 4, 8; cf. Hand, Turs. 4, 105 sqq.): ne quid ex antiquo praeter sonum linguae, nec eum incorruptum, retinerent, Liv. 5, 33, 11: Maharbal nec ipse eruptionem cohortium sustinuit, id. 23, 18, 4: nec nos, id. 3, 52, 9; 34, 32, 9; 37, 20, 8; 38, 23, 3; 40, 20, 6: non spes modo, sed nec dilatio, Just. 11, 8, 4: tam pauper, quam nec miserabilis Irus, Mart. 6, 77, 1; 5, 70, 6: Juv. 2, 151: interrogatus, an facta hominum deos fallerent, nec cogitata, inquit, Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 8; Tac. G. 6: nec ipse, Suet. Claud. 46; Flor. 1, 15, 3; Lact. 5, 13, 12; Amm. 14, 10, 3.

Nec = etiam non (freq. in Quint.): ut, si in urbe fines non reguntur, nec aqua in urbe arceatur, Cic. Top. 4, 23; id. Fin. 1, 11, 39: nec si quid dicere satis non est, ideo nec necesse est, Quint. 1, 1, 21: quod in foro non expedit, illic nec liceat, id. 9, 2, 67; 5, 10, 86; 12, 3, 6; 2, 13, 7: sed neque haec in principem, Tac. A. 4, 34; 3, 29; 2, 82.

Neque (nec) ... neque (nec), neither ... nor: quae neque Dardaniis campis potuere perire, Nec cum capta capi, nec cum combusta cremari, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 360 Vahl.): nam certe neque tum peccavi, cum ... neque cum, etc., Cic. Att. 8, 12, 2: nec meliores nec beatiores, id. Rep. 1, 19, 32: mors nec ad vivos pertineat nec ad mortuos, id. Tusc. 1, 38, 91: virtus nec eripi nec surripi potest umquam: neque naufragio neque incendio amittitur, id. Par. 6, 3, 51: neque ego neque Caesar, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 20, 1; cf.: haec si neque ego neque tu fecimus, Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 23; so, non ... nec ... neque ... neque: perspicuum est, non omni caussae, nec auditori neque personae neque tempori congruere orationis unum genus, Cic. de Or. 3, 55, 210.—The second nec is rarely placed after a word in the clause (poet.): nec deus hunc mensā, dea nec dignata cubili est, Verg. E. 4, 63; id. A. 4, 365; 696: sed nec Brutus erit, Bruti nec avunculus usquam, Juv. 14, 43.—With a preceding negative, which, however, does not destroy the negation contained in neque ... neque: non mediusfidius prae lacrimis possum reliqua nec cogitare nec scribere, Cic. Att. 9, 12, 1: ut omnes intellegant, nihil me nec subterfugere voluisse reticendo nec obscurare dicendo, id. Clu. 1, 1: nulla vitae pars neque publicis neque privatis, neque forensibus neque domesticis, neque si tecum agas, neque si cum altero contrahas vacare officio potest, id. Off. 1, 2, 4: nemo umquam neque poëta neque orator fuit, qui, etc., id. Att. 14, 20, 3; 8, 1, 3; Liv. 38, 50, 11.

Neque (nec) ... et (que), and et ... neque (nec), when one clause is affirmative, on the one hand not ... and on the other hand; not only not ... but also; or the contrary, on the one hand ... and on the other hand not; not only ... but also not. Neque (nec) ... et (que): id neque amoris mediocris et ingenii summi et sapientiae judico, Cic. Att. 1, 20, 1: animal nullum inveniri potest, quod neque natum umquam sit, et semper sit futurum, id. N. D. 3, 13, 32; id. Off. 2, 12, 43; id. Brut. 58, 198; Caes. B. G. 4, 1; Tac. A. 3, 35: ex quo intellegitur nec intemperantiam propter se fugienda