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Lewis : persona

persona, persōna, ae, f [acc. to Gabius Bassus ap. Gell. 5, 7, 1 sq., from per-sŏno, to sound through, with the second syllable lengthened]. A mask, esp. that used by players, which covered the whole head, and was varied according to the different characters to be represented (syn. larva), Gell. 5, 7, 1: personam tragicam forte vulpis viderat, Phaedr. 1, 7, 1: personam capiti detrahere, Mart. 3, 43, 4: persona adicitur capiti, Plin. 12, 14, 32, § 59. The masks were usually made of clay: cretea persona, Lucr. 4, 297, cf. Mart. 14, 176, 1. And sometimes of the bark of wood: oraque corticibus sumunt horrenda cavatis, Verg. G. 2, 387: ut tragicus cantor ligno tegit ora cavato, Prud. adv Symm. 2, 646. The opening for the mouth was very large: personae pallentis hiatum formidat infans, Juv. 3, 175: personis uti primus coepit Roscius Gallus praecipuus histrio, quod oculis obversis erat, nec satis decorus in personis nisi parasitus pronunciabat, Diom. p. 486 P. Heads with such masks were used as ornaments for water-spouts, fountains, etc.: Butades figulus primus personas tegularum extremis imbricibus imposuit, quae inter initia prostypa vocavit, Plin. 35, 12, 43, § 152: personae, e quarum rostris aqua salire solet, Dig. 19, 1, 17 fin.: mulier nempe ipsa videtur, non personā loqui, a mask, a masked person, Juv 3, 96.

Transf., a personage, character, part, represented by an actor: parasiti persona, Ter. Eun. prol. 26 sq.: sub personā militis, Gell. 13, 22, 11: (tragici) nihil ex personā poëtae dixerunt, Vell. 1, 3, 2.—Hence, Also, transf. beyond the scenic lang., in gen., the part or character which any one sustains in the world (class.): (ego), qui non heroum veteres casus fictosque luctus velim imitari atque adumbrare dicendo, neque actor sim alienae personae, sed auctor meae, Cic. de Or. 2, 47, 194: quam magnum est personam in re publicā tueri principis, id. Phil. 8, 10, 29: personam sustinere, id. Pis. 11, 24: personam, quam mihi tempus et res publica imposuit, imposed upon me, id. Sull. 3, 8; cf.: agenda est persona quam mihi miles imposuit, Vop. Prob. 10, 7; Macr. S. 2, 7, 17: partes lenitatis et misericordiae semper egi libenter: illam vero gravitatis severitatisque personam non appetivi, sed a re publicā mihi impositam sustinui, Cic. Mur. 3, 6: petitoris personam capere, accusatoris deponere, id. Quint. 13, 46: personam suscipere, id. de Or. 1, 37, 169: gravissimam personam sustinere, id. Pis. 29, 71: personam tenere, id. de Or. 3, 14, 54: personam gerere, id. Off. 1, 32, 115: abjectā quaestoriā personā comitisque assumptā, id. Planc. 41, 100: fateantur in Maeandrii personā esse expressam speciem civitatis, id. Fl. 22, 53: id Cicero suā ipsā personā frequentissime praecipit, in his own name, Quint. 10, 5, 2: cetera quae sunt a me in secundo libro de Oratore per Antonii personam disputata, Cic. Fam 7, 32, 2 B. and K. (dub.; al. ex personā): ex tuā personā enumerare possis, ut, etc., id. Inv. 1, 52, 99: nihil ex personā poëtae disserunt, Vell. 1, 3, 2; 1, 3, 3; so Col. 12, 3, 5; Gell. 10, 22, 1; Lact. Epit. 48, 7: sub personā Paridis, Suet. Dom. 10: so Gell. 10, 22, 24; 13, 22, 11: alienam personam ferre, Liv. 3, 36: non hominibus tantum, sed et rebus persona demenda est et reddenda facies sua, Sen. Ep. 24, 13: hanc personam induisti: agenda est, Sen. Ben. 2, 17, 2.—Hence, A human being who performs any function, plays any part, a person, personage: ut mea persona semper aliquid videretur habere populare, Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, § 7: ecquae pacifica persona desideretur, id. ib. 8, 12, 4: hujus Staleni persona, populo jam nota atque perspecta, id. Clu. 29, 78; id. Fam. 6, 6, 10: induxi senem disputantem, quia nulla videbatur aptior persona, id. Lael. 1, 4: Laelii persona, id. ib. 1, 4: certis personis et aetatibus, to people of a certain standing and of a certain age, Suet. Caes. 43: minoribus quoque et personis et rebus, to persons and things of less importance, id. Tib. 32; id. Aug. 27: nulla distantia personarum, Vulg. Deut. 1, 17: personarum acceptio, id. 2 Par. 19, 7; cf. id. Gal. 2, 6 al.: ipse suā lege damnatus, cum, substituta filii personā, amplius quingentorum jugerum possideret, Plin. 18, 3, 4, § 17: denique haec fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda, ita ut proxima esset Epaminondae, the second chief personage, Nep. Pelop. 4, 3.

So of persons, opp. to things and actions: ut rerum, ut personarum dignitates ferunt, Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 53.

Law t. t., a being having legal rights and obligations (including the state, etc.; not including slaves; cf. Sandars ad Just. Inst. introd. § 37; 1, 3 prooem.): omne jus quo utimur, vel ad personas pertinet vel ad res vel ad actiones, Dig. 1, 5, 1; Just. Inst. 1, 3 prooem.

A human being in gen., a person (post-Aug. and rare): continuantes unum quodque (praenomen) per trinas personas, Suet. Ner. 1: cum dira et foedior omni Crimine persona est, Juv. 4, 15.

In the grammarians, a person: quom item personarum natura triplex esset, qui loqueretur, ad quem, de quo, Varr. L. L. 8, § 20 Müll.; so id. ib. 9, 24, § 32 et saep.