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Lewis : potestas

potestas, pŏtestas, ātis (gen. plur. potestatium, Sen. Ep. 115, 7; Plin. 29, 4, 20, § 67), f. possum. Lit., in gen., ability, power of doing any thing (class.): SI FVRIOSVS EST AGNATORVM GENTILIVMQVE IN EO PECVNIAQVE EIVS POTESTAS ESTO, Fragm. XII. Tabularum: vim tantam in se et potestatem habere tantae astutiae, to have such a power of craftiness, to be able to devise such tricks, Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 32: aut potestas defuit aut facultas aut voluntas, Cic. Inv. 2, 7, 24: habere potestatem vitae necisque in aliquem, id. Dom. 29, 77; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 3, § 11: potestatem alicui deferre beneficiorum tribuendorum, id. Balb. 16, 37. —Poet., with inf.: potestas occurrere telis ... ensem avellere dextrā, Stat. Th. 3, 296; Luc. 2, 40.

In phrases. Esse in potestate alicujus, to be in one's power, under one's control, to be subject to (for a description of the relation of potestas under the Roman law, and of the classes of persons to whom it applied, v. Gai. Inst. 1, 49 sqq.): mittuntur legati, qui nuntient, ut sit in senatūs populique Romani potestate, Cic. Phil. 6, 2, 4: esse in dicione ac potestate alicujus, id. Quint. 2, 6: habere familiam in potestate, to keep them slaves, not to free them, Liv. 8, 15.

Esse in suā potestate, to be one's own master, Nep. Att. 6, 1; so, esse suae potestatis, Liv. 31, 45.

Jus potestatemque habere imperandi, Cic. Phil. 11, 12, 30; cf.: cum consulis eā de re jus ac potestatem esse dixisset, had jurisdiction and authority over it, Liv. 24, 39.

Est mea (tua, etc.) potestas, I have the power, I can, Cic. Att. 2, 5, 1; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 42; cf.: sed volui meam potestatem esse vel petendi, etc., Cic. Att. 4, 2, 6.

In partic. Political power, dominion, rule, empire, sovereignty (syn.: imperium, dicio): Thessaliam in potestatem Thebanorum redigere, Nep. Pelop. 5, 1; Liv. 24, 31; so, sub potestatem Atheniensium redigere, Nep. Milt. 1, 4: esse in potestate alicujus, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 136: tenere aliquem in suā potestate ac dicione, id. ib. 2, 1, 38, § 97: venire in arbitrium ac potestatem alicujus, id. ib. 2, 1, 57, § 150.

Magisterial power, authority, office, magistracy (syn.: magistratus, auctoritas): potestas praetoria, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 69: qui togatus in re publicā cum potestate imperioque versatus sit, id. Phil. 1, 7, 18: modo ut bonā ratione emerit, nihil pro potestate, nihil ab invito, id. Verr. 2, 4, 5, § 10: cum potestate aut legatione in provinciam proficisci, id. ib. 2, 4, 5, § 9; id. Clu. 27, 74: censores dederunt operam, ut ita potestatem gererent, ut, etc., so to administer the office, id. Verr. 2, 2, 55, § 138; id. Agr. 2, 6, 14.—In plur.: imperia, potestates, legationes, id. Leg. 3, 3, 9: in potestatibus gerendis, Auct. Her. 3, 7, 14.

Transf. A person in office, a public officer, magistrate: a magistratu aut ab aliquā potestate legitimā evocatus, by some lawful authority, Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 74: mavis Fidenarum esse potestas, Juv. 10, 100.

A ruler, supreme monarch: hominum rerumque aeterna potestas, i. e. Jupiter, Verg. A. 10, 18: nihil est quod credere de se Non possit, cum laudatur dis aequa potestas, Juv. 4, 71 (v. context): potestates, = ἀρχαί, the highest magistrates, Plin. 9, 8, 8, § 26; Suet. Ner. 36; Amm. 31, 12, 5: celsae potestates, officers of state, id. 14, 1, 10: jurisdictionem potestatibus per provincias demandare, Suet. Claud. 23.

Esp., legal power, right over or to a thing (class.): potestatis verbo plura significantur: in personā magistratuum imperium, in personā liberorum patria potestas, in personā servi dominium: at cum agimus de noxae deditione cum eo, qui servum non defendit, praesentis corporis copiam facultatemque significamus. Ex lege Atiniā in potestatem domini rem furtivam venisse videri, et si ejus vindicandae potestatem habuerit, Sabinus et Cassius aiunt, Dig. 50, 16, 215.

Of inanimate things, power, force, efficacy, effect, operation, virtue, value: potestates colorum, Vitr. 7, 14: potestates visque herbarum, Verg. A. 12, 396; Plin. 25, 2, 5, § 9: pecuniarum, value, Dig. 13, 4, 3: haec potestatibus praesentibus dijudicanda sunt, circumstances, state of things, Gell. 1, 3, 24: actionum vis et potestas, Dig. 9, 4, 1: quaternarius numerus suis partibus complet decadis ipsius potestatem (because the first four integers, taken together, = 10), compass, fulness, Mart. Cap. 2, § 106: plumbi potestas, nature, quality, properties, Lucr. 5, 1242: naturalis, Vitr. 9, 4.

Of a word, meaning, signification (syn.: vis, significatio), Gell. 10, 29, 1; Auct. Her. 4, 54, 67; Sen. Ben. 2, 34, 4.

Math. t. t., = δύναμις, the square root, Mart. Cap. 2, § 106.

Trop. Power, control, command (class.): dum ex tanto gaudio in potestatem nostram redeamus, recover our self-control, come to ourselves, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3, 14: exisse ex potestate dicimus eos, qui effrenati feruntur aut libidine, aut iracundiā, to have lost the control of their reason, to be out of their minds, Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11; cf.: qui exisse ex potestate dicuntur, idcirco dicuntur, quia non sunt in potestate mentis, cui regnum totius animi a natura tributum est, id. ib. 3, 5, 11; cf. also id. ib. 4, 36, 77: postquam ad te cum omnium rerum tum etiam tui potestatem di transtulerint, Plin. Pan. 56, 3.

Power, ability, possibility, opportunity (class.; cf.: copia, facultas): ubi mihi potestas primum evenit, Plaut. Cist. 1, 2, 18: liberius vivendi, Ter. And. 1, 1, 25: ut primum potestas data est augendae dignitatis tuae, Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1: quoties mihi certorum hominum potestas erit (al. facultas), whenever I find men on whom I can rely, id. ib. 1, 7, 1: facere potestatem, to give opportunity, leave, permission: si quid de his rebus dicere vellet, feci potestatem, id. Cat. 3, 5, 11: quae potestas si mihi saepius fiet, utar, shall present itself, id. Phil. 1, 15, 38: alicui potestatem optionemque facere, ut, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45: facio tibi interpellandi potestatem, id. Rosc. Am. 27, 73: ego instare, omnium mihi tabularum et litterarum fieri potestatem oportere, must be allowed the use of, id. Verr. 2, 4, 66, § 149: potestatem sui facere, to allow others to see or have access to one, to give an opportunity of conversing with one: cum neque praetores diebus aliquot adiri possent vel potestatem sui facerent, allowed themselves to be spoken to, id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 15: facere omnibus conveniendi sui potestatem, to admit to an audience, id. Phil. 8, 10, 31: qui potestatem sui non habuissent, who had not been able to speak with him, Suet. Tib. 34: potestatem sui facere, to give an opportunity of fighting with one, Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Nep. Ages. 3, 3.—Poet., with inf.: non fugis hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas, Verg. A. 4, 565: nunc flere potestas est, Luc. 2, 40: soli cui tanta potestas meis occurrere telis, Stat. Th. 3, 296.

In eccl. Lat.: potestates, angels, angelic powers, authorities in the spiritual world, Vulg. Ephes. 6, 12; id. 1 Pet. 3, 22; sing., id. 1 Cor. 15, 24.

Personified, a daughter of Pallas and Styx, Hyg. Fab. prooem.