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Lewis : pro

pro prō (archaic collat. form, posi in posimerium; cf. pono, from posino; cf. Gr. ποτί and ποτ with πρός ), adv. and prep. root in Sanscr. prep. pra-, before, as in prathamas, first; Gr. πρό ; cf.: πρότερος, πρῶτος, etc.; Lat.: prae, prior, priscus, etc.; perh. old abl. form, of which prae is the loc., before, in front of; and, transf., for, with the idea of protection, substitution, or proportion. Adv., found only in the transf. comp. signif. (v. infra, II. B. 3.) in connection with quam and ut: pro quam and pro ut (the latter usually written in one word, prout), like prae quam and prae ut. * Pro quam, in proportion as, just as: nec satis est, pro quam largos exaestuat aestus, Lucr. 2, 1137.

Pro ut or prout, according as, in proportion, accordingly, proportionably as, just as, as (class.): compararat argenti bene facti, prout Thermitani hominis facultates ferebant, satis, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 34, § 83: tuas litteras, prout res postulat, exspecto, id. Att. 11, 6 fin.: id, prout cujusque ingenium erat, interpretabantur, Liv. 38, 50: prout locus iniquus aequusve his aut illis, prout animus pugnantium est, prout numerus, varia pugnae fortuna est, id. 38, 40 fin.—With a corresp. ita: ejusque rationem ita haberi, prout haberi lege liceret, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 46: prout sedes ipsa est, ita varia genera morborum sunt, Cels. 4, 4, 5: prout nives satiaverint, ita Nilum increscere, Plin. 5, 9, 10, § 51.

Prep. with abl. (late Lat. with acc.: PRO SALVTEM SVAM, Inscr. Grut. 4, 12; 46, 9; Inscr. Orell. 2360), before, in front of. Lit., of place: sedens pro aede Castoris, Cic. Phil. 3, 11, 27: praesidia, quae pro templis cernitis, id. Mil. 1, 2: ii qui pro portis castrorum in statione erant, Caes. B. G. 4, 32: pro castris copias habere, id. ib. 7, 66: pro castris dimicare, id. ib. 5, 16: pro oppido, id. ib. 7, 71: pro opere consistere, Sall. J. 92, 9: castra pro moenibus locata, Liv. 2, 53; 4, 17: pro muro, id. 30, 10: pro castris explicare aciem, id. 6, 23: pro vallo, Plin. 2, 37, 37, § 101; Vell. 2, 19, 1.—With verbs of motion: Caesar pro castris suas copias produxit, before the camp, Caes. B. G. 1, 48: hasce tabulas hic ibidem pro pedibus tuis obicito, before your feet, App. Mag. p. 337, 36; id. M. 4, p. 155, 2.

In partic., with the accessory idea of presence on the front part, on the edge or brink of a place, on or in the front of, often to be translated by a simple on or in: pro censu classis iuniorum, Serv. Tullius cum dixit, accipi debet in censu, ut ait M. Varro, sicuti pro aede Castoris, pro tribunali, pro testimonio, Fest. p. 246 Müll.; cf.: pro significat in, ut pro rostris, pro aede, pro tribunali, Paul. ex Fest. p. 228 Müll.; and: pro sententia ac si dicatur in sententiā, ut pro rostris id est in rostris, id. p. 226 Müll.: hac re pro suggestu pronunciata, qs. standing on the front part of the tribune, or, as we would say, on the tribune, Caes. B. G. 6, 3: pro tribunali cum aliquid ageretur, was transacted before or at my tribunal, Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 21; so, pro tribunali, id. Pis. 5, 11; id. Sest. 15, 34: pro contione, before the assembled army; and, in gen., before the assembly: laudatus pro contione Jugurtha, Sall. J. 8, 2; cf. Curt. 9, 1, 1: pro contione laudibus legati militumque tollere animos, Liv. 7, 7: fortes viros pro contione donantis, Curt. 10, 5, 10: pro contione litteras recitare, id. 4, 10, 16; Liv. 38, 23 fin.: pro contione palam utrumque temptavit, Suet. Vesp. 7; Tac. A. 3, 9; Front. Strat. 1, 11, 3: 4, 5, 11; cf.: pro comitio, Suet. Aug. 43: uti pro consilio imperatum erat, in the council, Sall. J. 29, 6; cf.: supplicatio in triduum pro collegio decemvirūm imperata fuit, Liv. 38, 36: pontifices pro collegio decrevisse, Gell. 11, 3, 2: pro collegio pronuntiare, Liv. 4, 26, 9: suas simultates pro magistratu exercere, id. 39, 5: pro munimentis castelli manipulos explicat, before, on the fortifications, Tac. A. 2, 80; 12, 33: stabat pro litore diversa acies, in front of or upon the shore, id. ib. 14, 30: legionem pro ripā componere, id. ib. 12, 29: velamenta et infulas pro muris ostentant, in front of, from the walls, Tac. H. 3, 31; so, pro muris, id. A. 2, 81: ad hoc mulieres puerique pro tectis aedificiorum saxa et alia, quae locus praebebat, certatim mittere, standing on the edge of the roofs, from the roofs, Sall. J. 67, 1 Kritz.

Transf. To signify a standing before or in front of, for defence or protection; hence an acting for, in behalf of, in favor of, for the benefit of, on the side of (opp. contra, adversum): veri inveniendi causā contra omnia dici oportere et pro omnibus, Cic. Ac. 2, 18, 60; cf.: hoc non modo non pro me, sed contra me est potius, id. de Or. 3, 20, 75: partim nihil contra Habitum valere, partim etiam pro hoc esse, id. Clu. 32, 88: difficillimum videtur quod dixi, pro ipsis esse quibus eveniunt ista, quae horremus ac tremimus, Sen. Prov. 3, 2: haec cum contra legem proque lege dicta essent, Liv. 34, 8: pro Romano populo armis certare, Enn. ap. Non. 150, 6 (Ann. v. 215 Vahl.); cf.: pro vostrā vitā morti occumbant, id. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 2, 62 (Trag. v. 176 Vahl.): quae ego pro re publica fecissem, Cato ap. Front. p. 149: nihil ab eo praetermissum est, quod aut pro re publicā conquerendum fuit, aut pro eā disputandum, Cic. Sest. 2, 3: omnia me semper pro amicorum periculis, nihil umquam pro me ipso deprecatum, id. de Or. 2, 49, 201: convenit dimicare pro legibus, pro libertate, pro patriā, id. Tusc. 4, 19, 43: dulce et decorum est pro patriā mori, Hor. C. 3, 2, 13; cf. id. ib. 3, 19, 2: pro sollicitis non tacitus reis, id. ib. 4, 1, 14: spondere levi pro paupere, id. A. P. 423: urbes, quae viris aut loco pro hostibus et advorsum se opportunissumae erant, Sall. J. 88, 4: nec aliud adversus validissimas gentes pro nobis utilius, quam, etc., Tac. Agr. 12: et locus pro vobis et nox erit, Liv 9, 24, 8: et loca sua et genus pugnae pro hoste fuere, id. 39, 30, 3: pro Corbulone aetas, patrius mos ... erant: contra, etc., Tac. A. 3, 31; id. H. 4, 78; Curt. 4, 14, 16.

With the notion of replacement or substitution, in the place of, instead of, for. In gen.: numquam ego argentum pro vino congiario ... disdidi, Cato ap. Front. p. 149: ego ibo pro te, si tibi non libet, Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 10: ego pro te molam, Ter. And. 1, 2, 29; Cic. Leg. 2, 5, 13: mutata (ea dico), in quibus pro verbo proprio subicitur aliud ... ut cum minutum dicimus animum pro parvo, etc., id. Or. 27, 92 sq.; cf.: libenter etiam copulando verba jungebant, ut sodes pro si audes, sis pro si vis ... ain' pro aisne, nequire pro non quire, malle pro magis velle, nolle pro non velle. Dein etiam saepe et exin pro deinde et exinde dicimus, id. ib. 45, 154: pro vitulā statuis dulcem Aulide natam, Hor S. 2, 3, 199: pro bene sano Ac non incauto fictum astutumque vocamus, id. ib. 1, 3, 61; cf. Suet. Caes. 70: pro ope ferendā sociis pergit ipse ire, etc., Liv. 23, 28, 11 Weissenb. ad loc.; Zumpt, Gram. § 667; cf.: pro eo, ut ipsi ex alieno agro raperent, suas terras, etc., Liv. 22, 1, 2.

Esp. freq. in connection with the title of any officer, to denote his substitute' pro consule, pro praetore, pro quaestore, pro magistro, etc. (afterwards joined into one word, as proconsul, propraetor, proquaestor, promagister, etc.), proconsul, proprœtor, proquœstor, vice-director: cum pro consule in Ciliciam proficiscens Athenas venissem, Cic. de Or. 1, 18, 82; cf.: cum L. Philippus pro consulibus eum se mittere dixit, non pro consule, instead of the consuls, not as proconsul, id. Phil. 11, 8, 18: nec pro praetore, Caesarem (vocat), id. ib. 13, 10, 22; Liv. 35, 1. cum Alexandriae pro quaestore essem, Cic. Ac. 2, 4, 11' cf.: litteris Q. Caepionis Bruti pro consule ... Q. Hortensii pro consule opera, etc., id. Phil. 10, 11, 26: P. Terentius operas in portu et scripturā Asiae pro magistro dedit, i προ -): prōdeo, prŏfiteor; and even in words borrowed from the Greek, as prōlogus.—Its signification has reference either to place, before, forwards; or to protection, for; procedo, procurro, profanus; procuro, propugno, prosum, protego.