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Lewis : provoco

provoco, prōvŏco, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. and n., to call forth, call out. Lit. In gen. (very rare): aliquem, Plaut. Ps. 2, 2, 43: ut ubi illaec prodeat, me provoces, id. Mil. 4, 3, 28; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 40: mandant, ut ad se provocet Simonidem, Phaedr. 4, 23, 25: dum rota Luciferi provocet orta diem, lead up, call forth, Tib. 1, 9, 62: Memnonis mater roseo provocet ore diem, Ov. P. 1, 4, 58; cf. id. F. 1, 456: provocare et elicere novas radiculas, Col. 3, 15, 5.

In partic. To call out, challenge, invite one to any thing (as to play, sing, drink, fight, etc.): provocat me in aleam, challenged me to a game, Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 75: pedibus, to a race, id. Ep. 5, 1, 58: aliquem tesseris, Macr. S. 1, 10: aliquem cantatum, Ter. Eun. 3, 1, 53: aliquem ad pugnam, Cic. Tusc. 4, 22, 49; cf. Liv. 8, 7, and Flor. 2, 17, 11 Duker: duces nec prohibere paucos temere provocantis volebant, nec, etc., Liv. 23, 16, 4: et oleo et mero viros provocant, Sen. Ep. 95, 21: aliquem ad bibendum, Vop. Firm. 4.

In jurid. lang., to take a cause before a higher court, to appeal, make an appeal; in this signif. usually neutr., ad aliquem; act. only post-class., with the judge to whom the appeal is made as object (cf. appello). Neutr.: ut de majestate damnati ad populum provocent, Cic. Phil. 1, 9, 21; cf.: quam id rectum sit, tu judicabis; ne ad Catonem quidem provocabo, id. Att. 6, 1, 7: provoco ad populum, Liv. 8, 33: arreptus a viatore, Provoco, inquit, I appeal, id. 3, 56: si a duumviris provocarit, provocatione certato, id. 1, 26, 6; 3, 56: ab omni judicio poenāque provocari licere, Cic. Rep. 2, 31, 54.

Act., to appeal to a judge (post-class.): si judicem provocent, Dig. 8, 28, 6: si praefectus urbi judicem dederit, ipse erit provocandus, qui eum judicem dederit, ib. 49, 3, 1.—Also: provocare judicium ad populum, to bring the decision before the people by appeal, Val. Max. 8, 1, 1; rarely, aliquem ad judicem, to cite, summon before, App. Flor. p. 360, 24.

Trop. To challenge to a contest, to contend with, emulate, rival, vie with (post-Aug.): aliquem virtute, to vie with him in virtue, Plin. Ep. 2, 7, 4: elegia Graecos provocamus, Quint. 10, 1, 93; cf.: ea pictura naturam ipsam provocavit, Plin. 35, 10, 36, § 94.—Of things, Plin. 16, 8, 12, § 32: immensum latus Circi templorum pulchritudinem provocat, id. Pan. 51, 3.

To challenge, incite, provoke to any thing: felicitas temporum, quae bonam conscientiam civium tuorum ad usum indulgentiae tuae provocat, Plin. Ep. 10, 12 (7) fin.: omni comitate ad hilaritatem et jocum provocare, Suet. Calig. 27; id. Claud. 21: tacentes ad communionem sermonis, id. Aug. 74.

To excite, stimulate, exasperate, stir up, rouse with any thing (class.; syn.: irrito, lacesso): qui non solum a me provocatus sed etiam suā sponte solet, etc., Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 3: aliquem beneficio, id. Off. 1, 15, 48: sermonibus, Caes. B. C. 1, 74: minis et verbis, Tac. H. 3, 24: bello, id. ib. 4, 17: injuriā, id. A. 14, 49 et saep.: ad iracundiam, Vulg. Isa. 63, 10; id. Deut. 4, 25.

To call forth, occasion, produce, cause: officia comitate, Tac. H. 5, 1: mortem tot modis, Plin. 19, praef. 1, § 5: bellum, Tac. G. 35; Plin. Pan. 16.

(Acc. to I. B. 2.) To appeal to any thing, to cite as authority or proof (late Lat.): ad litteras Pudentillae, App. Mag. 84, p. 326, 40: ad Judaeorum Codices provocare, Aug. Serm. 202, 3.