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Lewis : rex

rex, rex, rēgis (gen. plur regerum, Gell. ap. Charis p. 40 P.), m. rego, a ruler of a country, a king. Lit.: omnis res publica, quae ut dixi populi res est, consilio quodam regenda est, ut diuturna sit. Id autem consilium aut uni tribuendum est aut delectis quibusdam, etc. Cum penes unum est omnium summa rerum, regem illum unum vocamus et regnum ejus rei publicae statum, etc., Cic. Rep. 1, 26, 41; cf. id. ib. 2, 23, 43; 1, 42, 65: simulatque se inflexit hic rex in dominatum injustiorem, fit continuo tyrannus, id. ib. 2, 26, 49: rex Albai Longaï, Enn. ap. Fortun. p. 2691 P. (Ann. v. 34 Vahl.); Cic. Rep. 2, 2, 4: regum sapientia, id. ib. 2, 6, 11: rex Ancus, id. ib. 2, 3, 5: Anco regi, id. ib. 2, 20, 35: regem deligere, id. ib. 2, 12, 24: creare, id. ib. 2, 17, 31: constituere, id. ib. 2, 18, 33; 20: reges, nam in terris nomen imperi id primum fuit, Sall. C. 2, 1: regibus boni quam mali suspectiores sunt, id. ib. 7, 2: monumenta regis, Hor. C. 1, 2, 15: reges in ipsos imperium est Jovis, id. ib. 3, 1, 6: urbem Romanam a principio reges habuere, Tac. A. 1, 1: post reges exactos, Liv. 2, 8.

A very odious name in the time of the Republic, i. q. tyrant, despot: pulso Tarquinio nomen regis audire non poterat (populus Romanus), Cic. Rep. 2, 30, 53; cf.: hoc nomen (sc. tyranni) Graeci regis injusti esse voluerunt: nostri quidem omnes reges vocitaverunt, qui soli in populos perpetuam potestatem haberent. Itaque et Spurius Cassius et M. Manlius et Spurius Maelius regnum occupare voluisse dicti sunt, et modo (Ti. Gracchus), id. ib. 2, 27, 50 Mos.: rex populi Romani, i. e. Cæsar, id. Off. 3, 21, 83; cf. id. Fam. 12, 1, 1: decem reges aerarii, id. Agr. 2, 6, 14; v. also regnum, regno, and dominus, with tetrarcha, id. Mil. 28, 76; Hor. S. 1, 3, 12; Sall. C. 20, 7; v. Fabri ad h. l.

In ancient Rome the king had also priestly dignities and duties; hence, after the kings were expelled, the name rex (like βασιλεύς ) continued to be given in relig. lang. to the priest who performed these duties; hence, rex sacrificulus, sacrificus, sacrorum; v. sacrificulus; and rex Nemorensis, i. e. priest of Diana Aricina, Suet. Calig. 35.

* Poet., as adj., ruling, that rules or sways: populum late regem belloque superbum, Verg. A. 1, 21.

καT) ἐξοχήν, acc. to the Gr. βασιλεύς, the king of Persia, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 65; id. Eun. 3, 1, 7 and 11; Nep. Milt. 7, 5; id. Them. 3, 2; 4, 3; id. Paus. 1, 2 al.; cf of the king of the Parthi: regum rex (the Gr. βασιλευς βασιλέων ), Suet. Calig. 5; Amm. 17, 5, 3.

Transf. Of Jupiter, as king of gods and men: quem (sc. Jovem) unum omnium deorum et hominum regem esse omnes doctrinā expoliti consentiunt, Cic. Rep. 1, 36, 56; cf. of the same: summi deum regis, Naev. Bell. Pun. 3, 2; and: divom pater atque hominum rex, Verg. A. 1, 65; 2, 648; 10 2, 743 (with this cf.: o qui res hominumque deumque Aeternis regis imperiis, id. ib. 1, 229): Olympi magnus rex, id. ib. 5, 533; Hor. C. 4, 4, 2; id. Epod. 16, 56.—Sometimes also of other deities, as rulers of the realms assigned to them: aquarum, i. e. Neptune, Ov. M. 10, 606; so, aequoreus, id. ib. 8, 603: umbrarum, i.e. Pluto, id. ib. 7, 249; so, silentum, id. ib. 5, 356: rex infernus, Verg. A. 6, 106: tertiae sortis, Sen. Herc. Fur. 833: Stygius, Verg. A. 6, 252: antiqui poli, mundique prioris, i.e. Saturn, Mart. 12, 62.—Of Æolus, Verg. A. 1, 52 et saep.

In gen., head, chief, leader, master, etc. (mostly poet.); of Æneas, Verg. A. 1, 544; 575; 6, 55; 7, 220; of lions, Phaedr. 4, 13, 4; of the bull, as leader of the herd, Stat. Th. 5, 333; 11, 28; of the queen-bee, Verg. G. 4, 106; of the eagle, Plin. 10, 74, 95, § 203; of the Eridanus, as the first river of Italy, Verg. G. 1, 482; of Phanæan wine, id. ib. 2, 98 et saep.; also, of the master of a feast, like the Greek βασιλεύς : mensae, Macr. S. 2, 1; so absol. (sc. convivii), Prud. Cath. 9, 30 (cf. regnum and dominus); of a governor, preceptor of youth: actae pueritiae, Hor. C. 1, 36, 8; of the leader, king in children's games, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 59: rex inter ludentes delectus, Just. 1, 5, 1; of the protector, patron of parasites, Plaut. As. 5, 2, 73; id. Capt. 1, 1, 24; id. Stich. 3, 2, 2; Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 24: coram rege suā de paupertate tacentes, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 43; Mart. 2, 18, 5; Juv. 1, 136 et saep.; of the son of a king or chieftain, a prince, Verg. A. 9, 223; Val. Fl. 1, 174, Stat. Achill. 1, 156; Flor. 4, 9, 7 Duk. (cf. regulus and regina); of a powerful, rich, or fortunate person, Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 58: sive reges Sive inopes, Hor. C. 2, 14, 11; 2, 18, 34: regibus hic mos est, id. S. 1, 2, 86; 2, 2, 45; id. A. P. 434.

Reges sometimes signifies the king and queen, Liv. 1, 39 init., 27, 4; sometimes the whole royal family, id. 2, 2, 11; 2, 3, 5; 45, 43, 9.—Poet., rex sometimes denotes the character, sentiments, or feelings of a king: rex patrem (i.e. paternum animum) vicit, Ov. M. 12, 30: in rege pater est, id. ib. 13, 187.