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Lewis : sancio

sancio, sancĭo, xi, ctum, 4 (pluperf. sancierat, Pompon. ap. Diom. p. 368 P.; id. ap. Prisc. p. 904 ib.: sancivi, Prisc. 904; Diom. 368; part. perf. sancitum, Lucr. 1, 587; Cass. Sev. ap. Diom. l. l.), v. a. Sanscr. root sac, sak, to accompany, honor (cf. sequor); whence also sacer; cf. Gr. ἉΓ, ἅγιος, ἁγνός, to render sacred or inviolable by a religious act; to appoint as sacred or inviolable. Lit., mostly of legal ordinances or other public proceedings, to fix unalterably; to establish, appoint, decree, ordain; also, to make irrevocable or unalterable; to enact, confirm, ratify, sanction (freq. and class.; cf.: caveo, scisco). Sancire legem (jus, foedus, etc.): legibus istis, quas senatus de ambitu sancire voluerit, etc., Cic. Planc. 18, 44: Cretum leges, quas sive Juppiter sive Minos sanxit, id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; cf.: quasdam leges ex integro sanxit, Suet. Aug. 34; and: sancire legem, Ne quis, etc., Liv. 3, 55: tabulas Quas bis quinque viri sanxerunt, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 24: quam temere in nosmet legem sancimus iniquam, id. S. 1, 3, 67: legem sanciendo, Liv. 3, 55 et saep.—Pass.: haec igitur lex sanciatur, ut, etc., Cic. Lael. 12, 40, and 13, 44; cf.: M. Valerius consul de provocatione legem tulit diligentius sanctam, Liv. 10, 9: sacrosanctum esse nihil potest, nisi quod populus plebesve sanxisset, Cic. Balb. 14, 33: sanxisset jura nobis, id. Rep. 3, 11, 18: jus utile civitati, Pompon. ap. Prisc. p. 904: in quibus (legibus) illa eadem sancta sunt, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 50, § 123: cum aut morte tuā sancienda sint consulum imperia, aut impunitate in perpetuum abroganda, Liv. 8, 7: SENTENTIAM, Inscr. Orell. 4405: foedus, to ratify the treaty, Liv. 1, 24; so Cic. Sest. 10, 24: foedera sanguine, id. post Red. ad Quir. 5, 13; Liv. 23, 8 fin.; 25, 16; Tac. A. 12, 46; cf. poet.: foedera fulmine, Verg. A. 12, 200.

Sancire lege (edicto, etc.) aliquid, de aliquā re, ut, ne, etc.: alia moribus confirmarunt, sanxerunt autem alia legibus, Cic. Rep. 1, 2, 2; cf.: genus id agrorum certo capite legis confirmari atque sanciri, id. Agr. 3, 1, 3: quod aedilis plebis fuisset, contra quam sanctum legibus erat, Liv. 30, 19: ne res efferatur jurejurando ac fide sanciatur petunt, Caes. B. G. 7, 2; cf. Liv. 39, 37: neque enim rogationibus plebisve scitis sancta sunt ista praecepta, Quint. 2, 13, 6: coetibus ac sacrificiis conspirationem civitatum, Tac. Agr. 27: eadem fuit (causa) nihil de hac re lege sanciendi, Liv. 34, 4: nihil lege ullā in alios sanxit, Just. 3, 2, 8: de jure praediorum sanctum apud nos est jure civili, ut, etc., Cic. Off. 3, 16, 65: inhumanissimā lege sanxerunt, ut, etc., id. Rep. 2, 37, 63; cf.: habeat legibus sanctum, Si quis...uti, etc., Caes. B. G. 6, 20: lege naturae, communi jure gentium sanctum est, ut, etc., Cic. Har. Resp. 14, 32: primo duodecim tabulis sanctum, ne quis, etc., Tac. A. 6, 16: Flaccus sanxit edicto, ne, etc., Cic. Fl. 28, 67: in omne tempus gravi documento sancirent, ne, etc., Liv. 28, 19: nec, quominus id postea liceret, ulla lex sanxit, Cic. Ep. ad Brut. 1, 5, 3.

Without abl.: de quibus confirmandis et sanciendis legem comitiis centuriatis laturus est, Cic. Phil. 10, 8, 17; cf.: acta Caesaris, id. Att. 14, 21, 2: quae dubia sunt, per vos sancire vult, id. Agr. 3 4, 13: augurem Jovis optimi maximi, id. Phil. 13, 5, 12: cum de eo nihil sanxerit, quod antea commissum non erat, id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70: quid est, quod tam accurate tamque diligenter caveat et sanciat, ut heredes sui, etc., id. Fin. 2, 31, 101.

With acc. and inf.: rursus fide sanxerunt liberos Tarentinos leges suaque omnia habituros, Liv. 25, 8: omnes liberos esse sanxit, Suet. Claud. 25.

Lex sancit, decrees, ordains (with acc. or obj.-clause): at hoc Valeria lex non dicit, Corneliae leges non sanciunt, Cic. Agr. 3, 2, 8: consularis lex sanxit, ne qui magistratus sine provocatione crearetur, id. Rep. 2, 31, 54; cf.: res et ab naturā profectas et ab consuetudine probatas, legum metus et religio sanxit, id. Inv. 2, 53, 160.

Poet., with relative-clause: quid quaeque queant, per foedera naturaï, Quid porro nequeant, sancitum quandoquidem exstat, Lucr. 1, 587.

To render sacred to any one, to devote, consecrate, dedicate: sancire alicui carmina, Stat. S. 3, 3, 215; cf. id. Th. 11, 344: templum, Coripp. 4, 264.

Transf., to forbid under pain of punishment, to enact a penalty against (very rare): incestum pontifices supplicio sanciunto, Cic. Leg. 2, 9, 22; cf.: noxiae poena par esto, ut in suo vitio quisque plectatur: vis capite, avaritia multa, honoris cupiditas ignominiā sanciatur, id. ib. 3, 20, 46; id. Planc. 19, 47: hoc (sc. insidiae) quamquam video neque more turpe haberi, neque aut lege sanciri aut jure civili: tamen naturae lege sanctum est, id. Off. 3, 17, 69: erranti viam non monstrare, quod Athenis exsecrationibus publicis sanctum est, id. ib. 3, 13, 55: Solon capite sanxit, si qui in seditione non alterius utrius partis fuisset, made it a capital offence, id. Att. 10, 1, 2.—With abl. of fine: injurias factas quinque et viginti assibus sanxerunt, Gell. 20, 1, 31.—Hence, sanc-tus, a, um, P. a. Orig., rendered sacred, established as inviolable, i. e. sacred, inviolable (whereas sacer signifies consecrated to a deity. Thus, e. g., a temple, grove, or the like, is sacer locus; but sanctus locus is any public place which it is forbidden to injure or disturb. A sacer locus is also sanctus, but the converse is not always true): proprie dicimus sancta, quae neque sacra neque profana sunt, sed sanctione quādam confirmata, ut leges sanctae sunt, quia sanctione quādam sunt subnixae. Quod enim sanctione quādam subnixum est, id sanctum est, etsi deo non sit consecratum, Dig. 1, 8, 9: sanctum est, quod ab injuriā hominum defensum atque munitum est...In municipiis quoque muros esse sanctos, ib. 1, 8, 8; cf.: sanctae res, veluti muri et portae, ib. 1, 8, 1: campus, Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 11: tribuni ejus (plebis) essent sanctique sunto, id. Leg. 3, 3, 9 (cf. sacrosanctus): societas, id. Off. 1, 8, 26; id. Rep. 1, 32, 49: fides induciarum, Liv. 8, 37: nullum esse officium, nullum jus tam sanctum atque integrum, quod non ejus scelus atque perfidia violarit et imminuerit, Cic. Rosc. Am. 38, 109; so, officium, id. Quint. 6, 26: poëtae...poëtae nomen, id. Arch. 8, 18 sq.—Hence, aerarium sanctius, a special treasure of the State, which was only to be used in cases of extreme necessity (v. aerarium).—Of persons: hospites ab injuriā prohibent sanctosque habent, Caes. B. G. 6, 23: ut vestris etiam legionibus sanctus essem, Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 60: uxor, Phaedr. 3, 10, 30.—Because to the idea of inviolability is readily attached that of exalted worth, of sacredness, or divinity (as, on the contrary, our word sacred afterward received the meaning of inviolable, e. g. sacred rights, a sacred promise, sacred honor, etc.), sanctus denotes, Venerable, august, divine, sacred, pure, holy (very freq. and class.); of a divinity, and of things in any way belonging to one: Saturno sancte create, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 607 Vahl.): Juno Saturnia sancta dearum, id. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 4, 576 (Ann. v. 65 ib.): teque pater Tiberine (veneror) tuo cum flumine sancto, id. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 55 ib.): numen, Lucr. 5, 309; 6, 70: sedes deum, id. 5, 147; Cic. Rep. 5, 5, 7: fana, Lucr. 5, 74: delubra, id. 6, 417; 6, 1272: sanctus augustusque fons, Cic. Tusc. 5, 12, 36: sanctior dies (with sollemnis), Hor. C. 4, 11, 17: ignes (of a sacrifice), Verg. A. 3, 406 et saep.

After Augustus, a title given to the emperors, Ov. F. 2, 127; Val. Fl. 1, 11: sanctius et reverentius est visum nomen Augusti, Flor. 4, 12, 66: intra limina sanctioris aulae, Mart. 5, 6, 8 (al. aevi): amicitiae sanctum et venerabile nomen, Ov. Tr. 1, 8, 15: libertas, Liv. 3, 52: pudicitia, id. 3, 52.

Of character, morally pure, good, innocent, pious, holy, just, etc. (freq. and class.): cum esset ille vir exemplum innocentiae, cumque illo nemo nequ