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Lewis : simul

simul sĭmŭl (ante-class. also sĕmŭl, Plaut. Trin. prol. p. 97 Ritschl; v. infra; and sĕ-mŏl, C. I. L. 1175 fin.; cf. Lorenz ad Plaut. Most. 96; cf. also simitu. The final l of simul was scarcely pronounced in the vulg. lang., and in comic poetry does not make position with an initial consonant following; v. Corss. Ausspr. 2, p. 643 sq.; Lorenz ad Plaut. Ps. 567), adv. Sanscr. sama-; Gr. ἅμα, ὅμος ; cf. semel, = eodem tempore, unā, at the same time, together, at once, as soon as. Referring, as temporal adverb, to plural nouns of the same sentence, and representing persons or things as acting, happening, etc., simultaneously. After a plural subject: hunc ambo in saxo semul sedent ejecti, Plaut. Rud. prol. 72: multa concurrunt simul, Ter. And. 3, 2, 31: (duo homines) simul cenare voluerunt, Cic. Inv. 2, 4, 14: Zmyrnae cum simul essemus compluris dies, id. Rep. 1, 8, 13: tres simul soles effulserunt, Liv. 41, 21 fin.: tria simul agmina populabantur Indos, Curt. 9, 10, 7: duo simul hujusmodi personae Ciceroni obstiterunt, Quint. 11, 1, 69: Othonem multa simul exstimulabant, Tac. H. 1, 21; Cic. Fam. 9, 1, 2; id. Att. 5, 10, 5; Liv. 21, 33, 3; 41, 2 init.; Curt. 4, 15, 22.—Sometimes the logical subject is understood: multos modios salis simul (i. e. amicis) edendos esse, Cic. Lael. 19, 67.—Sometimes both the subject and predicate are understood: quare si simul (i. e. nos agere) placebit, Cic. Fam. 5, 19, 2.

With a plur. object: (Alcumena) uno partu duos peperit semul, Plaut. Am. 5, 2, 8: duas res simul nunc agere decretum'st mihi, Plaut. Merc. prol. 1: si duos consules simul ex Italiā ejectos ... res publica tenere potuisset, Cic. Phil. 13, 14, 29: ambo cum simul conspicimus, Liv. 40, 46 init.: simul omnibus portis erupit, id. 40, 48 fin.; cf. Auct. Her. 3, 12, 22; Liv. 8, 37, 5; 21, 60; 40, 30; 42, 7; Curt. 5, 9, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 76; 10, 3, 23; 10, 7, 16.—So with singular implying a plural: tota (urbs) simul exsurgere aedificiis coepit, Liv. 6, 4, 6: totam simul causam ponit ante oculos, Quint. 6, 1, 1.—After an adverb. implying a plural noun: igitur undique simul (i. e. ex omnibus locis simul) speculatores citi sese ostendunt, Sall. J. 101, 1.

Referring to plural attributes: omnium simul rerum ... discrimine proposito, Liv. 6, 35, 6: multarum simul civitatium legati Romam convenerunt, id. 43, 6, 1.

Referring to an attributive participle understood: multitudo plurium simul gentium (= simul eodem loco versantium), Liv. 44, 45: trium simul bellorum victor (= eodem tempore gestorum), id. 6, 4, 1: inter duo simul bella, id. 7, 27, 7: tot simul malis victi, Curt. 4, 4, 12. Referring to nouns, etc., connected by the preposition cum: simul cum = unā cum (v. una, s. v. unus), together with: novi (illum) cum Calchā semul, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 48: jube in urbem veniat jam tecum semul, id. Most. 4, 2, 26: qui ipsus equidem nunc primum istanc tecum conspicio semul? id. Am. 2, 2, 122: me misisti ad portum cum luci semul, id. Stich. 2, 2, 40: quae (amicitia) incepta a parvis cum aetate adcrevit simul, Ter. And. 3, 3, 7: simul consilium cum re amīsti? id. Eun. 2, 2, 10: Critolaum simul cum Diogene venisse commemoras, Cic. Or. 2, 38, 100: Hortensius tecum simul pro Appio Claudio dixit, id. Brut. 64, 230: cum corporibus simul animos interire, id. Lael. 4, 13: vobiscum simul considerantis, id. Rep. 1, 46, 70: testamentum Cyri simul obsignavi cum Clodio, id. Mil. 18, 48: simul cum lege Aeliā magistratum iniit, id. Att. 1, 16, 13: simul cum lumine pandit, id. Arat. 704 (452): simul cum moribus immutatur fortuna, Sall. C. 2, 5: cum animā simul, id. ib. 33, 4: simul cum occasu solis, id. J. 91, 2: simul cum dono designavit templi finis, Liv. 1, 10, 5: si (dictator) se (Fabium) simul cum gloriā rei gestae extinxisset, id. 8, 31, 7: ut cresceret simul et neglegentia cum audaciā hosti, id. 31, 36, 7; cf. Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 136; id. Aul. 4, 4, 28; id. Bacch. 4, 1, 5; id. Cist. 4, 2, 105; id. Ep. 1, 1, 39; id. Men. prol. 27; 2, 3, 54; 5, 1, 36; id. Merc. 2, 1, 31; id. Most. 1, 2, 17; Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 13; id. Tusc. 3, 18, 40; id. de Or. 2, 33, 142; 3, 3, 10; id. Arch. 12, 30; id. Sest. 22, 50; id. Fam. 15, 4, 8; Liv. 1, 31, 3; Nep. 3, 2; 11, 3; 18, 3; 23, 6; Quint. 11, 3, 65; Hor. Epod. 1, 8; id. S. 1, 1, 58.—Strengthened by una: quippe omnes semul didicimus tecum unā, Plaut. Poen. 3, 1, 50; cf. id. Most. 4, 3, 43.—With ellipsis of mecum: qui scribis morderi te interdum quod non simul sis, Cic. Att. 6, 2, 8.—Freq. cum eo (eis, etc.) must be supplied after simul, likewise, together with him, them, etc.: in vigiliam quando ibat miles, tum tu ibas semul (i. e. cum eo)? Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 86: cum simul P. Rutilius venisset, Cic. Rep. 1, 11, 17: hos qui simul erant missi, fallere, id. Rosc. Am. 38, 110: prae metu ne simul (i. e. cum iis) Romanus irrumperet, Liv. 5, 13, 13: extra turbam ordinem conlocuntur semul (i. e. inter se), Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 69; cf. id. ib. 2, 2, 180; Cic. Pis. 34, 84; Liv. 6, 11, 5; Curt. 8, 13, 3.—Simul with abl. alone = cum with abl. (poet. and in post-Aug. prose; cf. Gr. ἅμα with dat.): simul his, Hor. S. 1, 10, 86: quippe simul nobis habitat, Ov. Tr. 5, 10, 29: his simul, Sil. 3, 268: Magnetibus simul transmissi, Tac. A. 4, 55: quindecimviri septemviris simul, id. ib. 3, 64; cf. id. ib. 6, 9; Sil. 5, 418; Sen. Troad. 1049. Referring to a preceding adverb. clause, at the same time, i.e. as that of the action described: juris ubi dicitur dies, simul patronis dicitur, Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 17: quamquam ego vinum bibo, at mandata hau consuevi semul bibere una (= bibere quom vinum bibo, una cum vino), id. Pers. 2, 1, 3: quando nihil sit (quod det), semul amare desinat, id. Ps. 1, 3, 73 Fleck.: ubi res prolatae sunt, quom rus homines eunt, semul prolatae res sunt nostris dentibus, id. Capt. 1, 1, 10; id. Ps. 4, 7, 84; cf.: domum numquam introibis, nisi feres pallam simul (i. e. cum introibis), Plaut. Men. 4, 2, 104. Referring to two or more co-ordinate terms or facts representing these as simultaneous, and at the same time, and also, both ... and (at once), together. Referring to co-ordinate terms of the same sentence. Simul preceding all the coordinate terms which are connected by et, ac, atque, que, or by et ... et (freq. in the histt.): semul flere sorbereque haud facile est, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 104: Q. Hortensi ingenium simul aspectum et probatum est, Cic. Brut. 64, 228: Bomilcar, simul cupidus incepta patrandi, et timore socii anxius, Sall. J. 70, 5: dicenti lacrimae simul spiritum et vocem intercluserunt, Liv. 40, 16 init.: quae simul auxilio tribunicio et consensu plebis impediri coepta, id. 6, 27, 9: Lycios sub Rhodiorum simul imperio et tutelā esse, id. 41, 6 fin.: Priverni qui simul a Fundanis ac Romanis defecerunt, id. 8, 19, 11: simul divinae humanaeque spei pleni pugnam poscunt, id. 10, 40, 1: eximio simul honoribus atque virtutibus, id. 6, 11, 3: obruit animum simul luctus metusque, id. 42, 28; 5, 26, 10; Val. Max. 5, 2, 6: simul ipsum Vitellium contemnebant metuebantque, Tac. H. 2, 92; cf. Liv. 3, 38, 12; 3, 50, 12; 5, 7, 3; 6, 18, 5; 6, 33, 9; 6, 40, 4; 9, 12, 4; 27, 51, 12; Caes. B. G. 7, 48; Curt. 5, 4, 30; Sen. Q. N. 2, 54, 2.—So with three or more co-ordinate terms, either all connected by et, Caes. B. G. 4, 24, 2; Quint. 1, 12, 3; 10, 7, 23; or asyndetic: nunc simul res, fides, fama, virtus, decus deseruerunt, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 60.

Simul after all the coordinate terms (mostly ante-class.): nunc operam potestis ambo mihi dare et vobis simul, Plaut. Men. 5, 9, 40: faxo et operam et vinum perdiderit simul, id. Aul. 3, 6, 42: ut si quis sacrilegii et homicidii simul accusetur, Quint. 12, 1, 4; cf. Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 92; id. Men. 3, 3, 16; Mart. 11, 58, 10.

Simul after the first of the co-ordinate terms (so not in Cic.): convenit regnum simul atque locos ut haberet, Naev. Bell. Pun. 1, 6, fr. 3: oculis simul ac mente turbatum, Liv. 7, 26, 5: quod ubi auditum simul visumque est, id. 8, 39, 7: pulvere simul ac sudore perfusum, Curt. 3, 5, 2: terrestri simul navalique clade, id. 4, 3, 14: vota nuncupabantur simul et solvebantur, Val. Max. 6, 9, ext. 5: qui ima simul ac summa foveret aequaliter, Sen. Ep. 90, 25; cf. Liv. 4, 32, 12; Curt. 3, 8, 23; 6, 5, 19; 8, 5, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 30.—In post-Aug. prose without any temporal idea, = as well as: populi Romani facta simul ac dicta memoratu digna ... deligere constitui, Val. Max. 1 prol.; so id. 1, 1, 9.

Placed before the last term. Simul et (= simul etiam), and at the same time, and also: Jugurtha, postquam oppidum Capsam aliosque locos munitos, simul et magnam pecuniam amiserat, Sall. J. 97, 1: Marium fatigantem de profectione, simul et invisum et offensum, id. ib. 73, 2: Marius hortandi causā, simul et nobilitatem exagitandi, contionem advocavit, id. ib. 84, 5: milites modesto imperio habiti, simul et locupletes, id. ib. 92, 2: Perseus cum adventu consulis, simul et veris principio strepere omnia cerneret, Liv. 44, 34 fin.; cf. Hor. C. 1, 20, 6.

Simulque (rare): ut (materia) fragilis incumberet, simulque terra umore diluta, Curt. 8, 10, 25.

Simul, without any conjunction (so in Cic., but only poet.): Neptuno grates habeo et tempestatibus, semul Mercurio qui, etc., Plaut. Stich. 3, 1, 3: Electra Stereopeque, simul sanctissima Maja, Cic. Arat. 270 (36): inter solis iter, simul inter flamina venti, id. ib. 342 (101): ambiguus consilii, num Dyrrhachium pedite atque equite, simul longis navibus mare clauderet, Tac. H. 2, 83.

Inserted in the last term (poet.): memor Actae non alio rege puertiae, Mutataeque simul togae, Hor. C. 1, 36, 9; interea Maecenas advenit atque Coccejus, Capitoque simul Fontejus, id. S. 1, 5, 32.

Referring to two or more co-ordinate clauses or sentences. Et simul or simulque: contundam facta Talthybi, contem namque omnes nuntios, semulque cursuram meditabor ad ludos Olympios, Plaut. Stich. 2, 1, 34: eamus, et de istac simul consilium volo capere una tecum, i. e. while going, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 65: quod ... et simul quia, Lucr. 5, 1181: ratio Ecquaenam fuerit origo ... et simul ecquae sit finis, etc., id. 5, 1213: sed iidem illi ita mecum loquuntur ... et simul admonent quiddam quod cavebimus, etc., Cic. Phil. 1, 11, 28: ex tuis litteris cognovi festinationem tuam, et simul sum admiratus cur, etc., id. Fam. 7, 8, 1: emergit Nixi caput, et simul effert sese clara Fides et, etc., id. Arat. 713 (460): postquam Rutilium consedisse accepit, simulque ex Jugurthae proelio clamorem augeri, Sall. J. 52, 6: equites ex equis desiliunt, simulque et hosti se opponunt, et animos peditum accendunt, Liv. 3, 62, 8: tum rigere omnibus corpora ... et simul lassitudine et ... fame etiam deficere, id. 21, 54, 9; 41, 3; Cic. Arat. 504 (259); 545 (299); Curt. 4, 2, 21; Quint. 2, 5, 13.

Simul with autem or enim, introducing the second sentence: salve! simul autem vale! Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: augeamus sane suspicionem tuam; simul enim augebimus diligentiam, Cic. Marc. 7, 22.

Simul preceding co-ordinate sentences, generally connected by et ... et, but also by a single copulative conjunction: simul enim et rei publicae consules, et propones ei exempla ad imitandum, Cic. Phil. 10, 2, 5: illa autem altera ratio quae simul et opinionem falsam tollit, et aegritudinem detrahit, id. Tusc. 4, 28, 60: simul et inopiam frumenti lenire, et ignaris omnibus parare, Sall. J. 91, 1: nullus portus erat qui simul et omnīs onerarias caperet, et tecta legionibus praeberet, Liv. 32, 18, 3: simul et cohors invasit, et ex omnibus oppidi partibus ... concurrerunt, id. 32, 24, 3: simul Metelli imagines dereptae, et missi qui Antonio nuntiarent. Tac. H. 3, 13; cf. Suet. Caes. 57.

Referring to co-ordinate clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions: Mnesilochum ut requiram atque ut eum mecum ad te adducam semul, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 5, 2: tantum faciam ut notam apponam ... et simul significem, etc., Cic. Fam. 13, 6, 2: quod eo liberius ad te seribo, quia nostrae laudi favisti, simulque quod video non novitati esse invisum meae, id. ib. 1, 7, 8; 7, 10, 3.—If used in connecting dependent clauses, simul often stands for a co-ordinating conjunction; v. VI. infra. Introducing an independent sentence, at the same time, also, likewise (cf.: itaque, igitur, deinde, tum, etc.). Simul alone: ego Tiresiam consulam quid faciundum censeat: semul hanc rem ut facta est eloquar, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 77: sequimini! simul circumspicite ne quis adsit arbiter, id. Mil. 4, 4, 1: alterum ipse efficiam ut attente audiatis. Simul illud oro: si, etc., Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10: hoc proprium virtutis existimant ... simul hoc se fore tutiores arbitrantur, Caes. B. G. 6, 23: Valerio Samnitium legiones occurrunt ... simul in Campanos stimulabat ira, Liv. 7, 32, 3: tibi (Apollo) decimam partem praedae voveo. Te simul, Juno, precor ut, etc., id. 5, 21, 3.

More freq. simul et (= etiam): quia videbitur Magis verisimile id esse ... simul et conficiam facilius ego quod volo, ἅμα μὲν ... ἅμα δέ ), partly ... partly; not only ... but at the same time (not anteAug.). With independent clauses: simul castra oppugnabantur, simul pars exercitūs ad populandum agrum Romanum missa, Liv. 3, 5, 2: accolas Hannibal simul perlicit ad naves fabricandas, simul et ipsi traici exercitum cupiebant, id. 21, 26, 7: ab his simul custodes trucidari coepti, simul datum signum armatis ut ex insidiis concurrerent, id. 9, 25, 8: simul gratias agit, simul gratulatur quod, etc., Curt. 6, 7, 15; cf. Verg. A. 1, 631 sq.; 2, 220 sqq.; 12, 268; Liv. 1, 9, 5.

With dependent clauses: venit ad quaerendum, simul quod non deducerent praesidia, simul quod in Bithyniam auxilia missi forent, Liv. 39, 46 fin.: Perseus cum audisset, simul Meliboeam a consulis exercitu oppugnari, simul classem Iolci stare, id. 44, 13 init.: consul ad Phylan ducit, simul ut praesidium firmaret, simul ut militi frumentum divideret, id. 44, 8, 1: simul questi ... simul nuntiantes, id. 42, 46: plus quam imponebatur oneris recepi, simul ut pleniore obsequio demererer amantissimos mei, simul ne ... alienis vestigiis insisterem, Quint. prooem. 3.—Rarely connecting a dependent clause with an independent sentence: Athenas ierant, simul ut pro legatione praemio esset honos, simul peritos legum peregrinarum ad condenda nova jura usui fore credebant, Liv. 3, 35, 5; cf. Verg. A. 12, 758.

Co-ordinating dependent clauses with adverbial phrases: Germani frequenter in castra venerunt, simul sui purgandi causā, simul ut de induciis impetrarent, Caes. B. G. 4, 13: Philippus, simul ne ocio miles deterior fieret, simul avertendae suspicionis causā ... in Maedicam ducere pergit, Liv. 40, 21, 1.

Connecting single nouns or phrases belonging to the same predicate: cum simul fragor rupti pontis, simul clamor Romanorum impetum sustinuit, Liv. 2, 10, 10: ad se simul legatos, simul milites missos, id. 42, 52 med.: et Romae simul dilectu, simul tributo conferendo laboratum est, id. 5, 10, 3: increpando simul temeritatem, simul ignaviam, id. 2, 65, 4: tum vero si mul ab hostibus, simul ab iniquitate loco rum Poeni oppugnabantur, id. 21, 33, 5: inter simul complorationem feminarum, simul nefandam caedem, id. 41, 11: simul a mari, simul a terrā ingredienti, id. 44, 12 med.; cf. Tac. A. 1, 49; 14, 40; id. Agr. 25; 36; 41; Verg. G. 3, 201; id. A. 1, 513; Hor. S. 2, 2, 73. Simul, in connection with ac, atque (also written in one word, sĭmŭlac, sĭmŭlatque), rarely with ut, and very rarely with et, is used as subordinating, temporal conjunction, as soon as. For simulac, etc., simul alone is freq. Simul ac: simul ac lacrimas de ore noegeo (i. e. candido) detersit, Liv. And. ap. Fest. p. 174 Müll.: Demenaetum simul ac conspexero hodie, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 73: non simul ac se ipse commovit, sensit quid intersit, Cic. Ac. 2, 16, 51: si simul ac procul conspexit armatos, recessisset, id. Caecil. 16, 46: dicebam, simul ac timere desisses, similem te futurum tui, id. Phil. 2, 35, 89: Alcibiades, simul ac se remiserat, dissolutus reperiebatur, Nep. Alcib. 1. 4: at mihi plaudo Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arcā, Hor. S. 1, 1, 67; cf. Cic. N. D. 1, 38, 108; id. Fam. 15, 16, 2; id. Planc. 41, 98; id. Phil. 4, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 2, 19, § 46; id. Or. 2, 27, 117; Verg. A. 4, 90; 12, 222; Ov. M. 2, 167; Hor. S. 1, 2, 33; 1, 4, 119; 1, 8, 21.—Strengthened by primum (= ut primum): simul ac primum ei occasio visa est, quaestor consulem deseruit, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 13, § 34; so id. ib. 2, 1, 52, § 138; id. Phil. 4, 1, 1; Suet. Caes. 30; id. Ner. 43.

Simul atque: L. Clodius, simul atque introductus est, rem conficit, Cic. Clu. 14, 40: simul atque increpuit suspicio tumultus, artes ilico nostrae conticescunt, id. Mur. 10, 22: simul atque audivit ejus interitum, suo Marte res suas recuperavit, id. Phil. 2, 37, 95: simul atque enim se infiexit hic rex in dominatum injustiorem, fit continuo tyrannus, id. Rep. 2, 26, 49: simul atque sibi hic adnuisset, numeraturum se dicebat, id. Quint. 5, 18: qui, simul atque in oppidum venerat, inmittebantur illi continuo Cibyratici canes, id. Verr. 2, 4, 21, § 47: simul atque de Caesaris adventu cognitum est, Caes. B. G. 5, 3, 3; cf. Cic. Planc. 41, 98; id. Phil. 8, 10, 31; Suet. Caes. 29; id. Galb. 7.

Simul ut (v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 11, 33): simul ut experrecti sumus, visa illa contemnimus, Cic. Ac. 2, 16, 51: simul ut accepi a Seleuco litteras tuas, statim quaesivi, etc., id. Fam. 6, 18, 1: nostros omnia consequi potuisse, simul ut velle coepissent, id. Tusc. 4, 2, 5; id. Q. Fr. 2, 5, 3 (6, 2): simul ut, qui sint professi, videro, dicam, id. Planc. 6, 14; id. Att. 10, 4, 12: nam simul ut supero se totum lumine Cancer extulit, extemplo cedit delapsa Corona, id. Arat. 596 (349).

Simul et: simul et quid erit certi, scribam ad te, Cic. Att. 2, 20, 2: ego ad te statim habebo quod scribam, simul et videro Curionem, id. ib. 10, 4, 12: quam accepi simul et in Cumanum veni, id. ib. 10, 16, 4; 16, 11, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6, 3. In all these passages the Cod. Med. has simul et, which the editors variously changed into simulatque, simulac, simul ut, simul; so, omne animal simul et ortum est, se ipsum diligit, Cic. Fin. 2, 11, 33, where the vulg. has simul ut, and Madv. reads simul [et] ortum.

Simul ubi: quod simul ubi conspexit, equites emisit, Liv. 4, 18, 7 dub. Weissenb. ad loc.

Simul alone, = simul atque: simul herbae inceperint nasci, Cato, R. R. 48: hic simul argentum repperit, curā sese expedivit, Ter. Phorm. 5, 4, 4: simul limen intrabo, illi extrabunt illico, Afran. ap. Non. 104, 21 (Com. Rel. v. 5 Rib.): simul inflavit tibicen, a perito carmen agnoscitur, Cic. Ac. 2, 27, 86: nostri, simul in arido constiterunt, in hostes impetum fecerunt, Caes. B. G. 4, 26 fin.: simul increpuere arma, hostis pedem rettulit, Liv. 6, 24, 1; cf. Cic. Tusc. 4, 6, 12; id. Fin. 3, 6, 21; id. Arat. 594 (349); Caes. B. C. 1, 30, 3; Liv. 3, 62, 6; 4, 18, 6; 4, 31, 5; 4, 32, 6; 5, 25, 11; 8, 32, 2; 21, 55, 9; 44, 8 med.; 44, 19; 44, 44 fin.; Curt. 3, 11, 4; Phaedr. 3, 16, 16; Hor. C. 1, 12, 27; 3, 4, 37; Verg. G. 4, 232; Ov. F. 1, 567.—Strengthened by primum: simul primum magistratio abiit, dicta dies est, Liv. 6, 1, 6: simul primum anni tempus navigabile praebuisset mare, id. 35, 44, 5 Weissenb. ad loc.; Suet. Caes. 30.