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Lewis : solum

solum, sŏlum, i, (collat. form sŏlus, ūs, m., acc. to Varr. L. L. 6, 1, 2), n. root sar-, to guard, make whole; Sanscr. Sarva, entire; cf.: solea, solidus, sollus, the lowest part of a thing, the bottom, ground, base, foundation. Lit., the floor or pavement of a room; the bottom of a ditch or trench; the foundation of a building or the ground, site, on which it stands, etc.; ground, earth, land, soil; the sole of the foot or of a shoe, etc.: aurata tecta in villis et sola marmorea, Cic. Par. 6, 3, 49: (templi) Marmoreum solum, Ov. M. 15, 672; Tib. 3, 3, 16: ut ejus (fossae) solum tantundem pateret, quantum summa labra distabant, Caes. B. G. 7, 72: imum stagni, Ov. M. 4, 298: maris, Sen. Agam. 475.—Of a river-bed: puro solo excipitur, Curt. 3, 4, 8; 5, 3, 2; cf.: ubi mollius solum reperit, stagnat insulasque molitur, id. 8, 9, 7: trabes in solo collocantur, Caes. B. C. 7, 23: super pilas lapide quadrato solum stratum est, Curt. 5, 1, 33: tecta (porticus) solo jungens, Lucr. 4, 430: solo aequata omnia, Liv. 24, 47 fin.: clivus Publicius ad solum exustus est, id. 30, 26, 5: urbem ad solum diruere, Curt. 3, 10, 7; Eutr. 4, 17: solo exaequare, Flor. 1, 13, 4: solo aequare, Vell. 2, 4, 2: aedificia cuncta solo cohaerentia, Amm. 22, 11, 6: ISIDI TEMPLVM A SOLO POSVIT, Inscr. Orell. 457; cf. ib. 467; Inscr. Fabr. 10, 47: domo pignori data et area ejus tenebitur: est enim pars ejus; et contra jus soli sequitur aedificium, Dig. 13, 7, 21: solum proscindere terrae, Lucr. 5, 1295; so, terrae, id. 1, 212; 5, 211; 5, 1289.—Plur.: recente terrae sola sanguine maculans, Cat. 63, 7: sola dura, id. 63, 40; Verg. G. 1, 80; Tib. 1, 5, 3; Stat. S. 1, 1, 56; id. Th. 4, 445: sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqui, Caes. B. G. 1, 11: solum exile et macrum, Cic. Agr. 2, 25, 67: incultum et derelictum, id. Brut. 4, 16: densum, siccum, macrum, etc., Col. 2, 2, 5 sq.: duratae solo nives, Hor. C. 3, 24, 39: putre, Verg. G. 2, 204: cruentum, Ov. M. 4, 134: foecundum, id. ib. 7, 417: pulvereum, id. ib. 7, 113: triste, id. ib. 8, 789: vivax, id. ib. 1, 420: pingue, Verg. G. 1, 64: praepingue, id. A. 3, 698: mite, Hor. C. 1, 18, 2: exiguum, Tib. 1, 1, 22: cultum, id. 1, 1, 2: nudum, Curt. 3, 4, 3; 7, 5, 17: viride, Verg. A. 6, 192: presso exercere solum sub vomere, id. G. 2, 356: solo inmobilis haeret, id. A. 7, 250: ingreditur solo, id. ib. 4, 177: solo recubans, id. ib. 3, 392: reptans solo, Stat. S. 5, 5, 83.—Plur.: saturare fimo pingui sola, Verg. G. 1, 80: ardent sola terrae, Lucr. 2, 592; Cat. 61, 7; 61, 40; Tib. 1, 5, 3; Stat. S. 1, 1, 56; id. Th. 4, 445; cf. Cic. Balb. 5, 13, B. 1. infra: solum hominis exitium herbae, the sole of the foot, Varr. R. R. 1, 47 fin.: mihi calciamentum solorum (est) callum, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 90: loca nullius ante Trita solo, Lucr. 1, 927; 4, 2: (canes) unguibus duris, solo nec ut corneo nec nimium duro, Varr. R. R. 2, 9, 4: qui auro soccis habeat suppactum solum, the sole of a shoe, Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 98; of a dog: solum corneum, Varr. R. R. 2, 9, 4: cereale solum pomis agrestibus augent, their wheaten board, Verg. A. 7, 111: vastis tremit ictibus aerea puppis, Subtrahiturque solum, i. e. the sea under the vessel, id. ib. 5, 199: omne ponti, Val. Fl. 4, 712: astra tenent caeleste solum, i. e. the vault of heaven, Ov. M. 1, 73: manibusque cruentis Pulsat inane solum, i. e. the sockets of the eyes, Stat. Th. 1, 55.

Prov.: quodcumque or quod in solum venit, whatever falls to the ground, i. e. whatever comes uppermost or occurs to the mind, = quod in buccam venit, Varr. ap. Non. 500, 11; Cic. N. D. 1, 23, 65; Afran. ap. Non. 124, 18 sq. (Com. Fragm. v. 41 Rib.).—Also ellipt. (cf. bucca): convivio delector: ibi loquor, quod in solum ut dicitur, Cic. Fam. 9, 26, 2.

Transf., in gen. Soil, i. e. land, country, region, place (cf.: terra, tellus, humus): sola terrarum, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 301 Müll. (Ann. v. 443 Vahl.): solum, in quo tu ortus et procreatus, Cic. Leg. 2, 2, 4; cf. patriae, id. Cat. 4, 7, 16; Liv. 5, 49: pro solo, in quo nati essent, id. 5, 30, 1: patrium, id. 21, 53: natale, i. e. native country, natal soil, Ov. M. 7, 52; 8, 184; id. P. 1, 3, 35; Sen. Med. 334; cf.: in gremio regni solique genitalis, Amm. 17, 12, 21: Miletus, genitale solum, Vell. 2, 7, 5 (7); Vop. Aur. 3, 2.—Plur.: vos, mutae regiones, imploro, et sola terrarum ultimarum, etc., Cic. Balb. 5, 13: sola Romana, Capitol. Max. 13: vile solum Sparte est, Ov. M. 15, 428: Romani numen utrumque soli, id. F. 3, 292: maxima Fundani gloria soli, id. P. 2, 11, 28.

Hence, solum vertere, to leave one's country (generally said of going into exile): qui volunt poenam aliquam subterfugere, eo solum vertunt, hoc est, sedem ac locum mutant, Cic. Caecin. 34, 100; cf.: neque exsilii causā solum vertisse diceretur, id. Quint. 28, 26; id. Phil. 5, 5, 14; Liv. 3, 13; 43, 2 al.; so, solum civitatis mutatione vertere, Cic. Balb. 11, 28.—Rarely, in this sense: solum mutare: exsules sunt, etiam si solum non mutarint, Cic. Par. 4, 2, 31; cf.: quo vertendi, hoc est mutandi, soli causā venerant, id. Dom. 30, 78.

In jurid. lang.: res soli, land, and all that stands upon it, real estate (opp. res mobiles, personal or movable property): omnes res, sive mobiles sint, sive soli, Dig. 13, 3, 1; so, res soli, ib. 43, 16, 1, § 32: tertia pars de agris, terris, arbustis, satis quaerit, et, ut jurisconsultorum verbo utar, de omnibus quae solo continentur, Sen. Q. N. 2, 1, 2; Plin. Ep. 6, 19, 4: ut feneratores duas patrimonii partes in solo collocarent, lay out in land, Suet. Tib. 48: in solo proprio, Vop. Flor. 2.

Trop., a base, basis, foundation (very rare): auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque, i. e. throne, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 48 fin. (Ann. v. 99 Vahl.); cf.: Tarquinio dedit imperium simul et sola regni, Enn. ap. Fest. p. 298 Müll. (Ann. v. 151 Vahl.): solum quidem et quasi fundamentum oratoris vides locutionem emendatam et Latinam, Cic. Brut. 74, 258: solum quoddam atque fundamentum, id. de Or. 3, 37, 151: solo aequandae sunt dictaturae consulatusque, to be levelled with the ground, i. e. to be utterly abolished, Liv. 6, 18, 14; so, ad solum dirutum, Vulg. Nah. 2, 6.