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Lewis : species

species, spĕcĭes, ēi (gen. sing. specie or specii, Matius ap. Gell. 9, 14, 15; gen. and dat. plur. were not in use in Cicero's time, but formarum, formis were used instead; cf. Cic. Top. 7, 30.—At a later period were introduced: specierum, Pall. Oct. 14, 15; Cod. Just. 1, 2, 10; Cael. Aur. Tard. 1, 5, § 151; cf. Charis. p. 18 P.; and Diom. p. 281 P.: speciebus, App. ad Asclep. p. 92, 25; Cod. Just. 11, 9, 1 al.; Dig. 28, 2, 29, § 10), f. specio. Act., a seeing, sight, look, view (rare; cf. aspectus): speciem quo vortimus, Lucr. 4, 242; so id. 4, 236 (for which, a little before, visus); 5, 707; 5, 724; Vitr. 3, 2 fin.; 5, 9: si tantis intervallis nostra species potest id animadvertere, id. 9, 4: qui sensus nostros specie primā acerrime commovent, Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 98: qui doloris speciem ferre non possunt, id. Tusc. 2, 23, 54.

Pass., prop. that which is seen in a thing, i. e. the outward appearance, outside, exterior; shape, form, figure, mien, etc. (freq. and class.; syn. forma). Lit.: praeter speciem stultus, Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 49: quod speciem ac formam similem gerit ejus imago, Lucr. 4, 52; cf.: quae species formaque pugnae, qui motus hominum non ita expictus est, ut, etc., outlines, contours, Cic. Tusc. 5, 39, 114: esse aliquem humanā specie et figurā, id. Rosc. Am. 22, 63: hominis esse specie deos confitendum est, id. N. D. 1, 18, 48: edepol specie lepida mulier! Plaut. Rud. 2, 4, 2; cf.: bellan' videtur specie mulier? id. Bacch. 4, 7, 40; id. Most. 1, 3, 23; id. Mil. 4, 2, 10; 4, 6, 20: urbis speciem vidi, id. Pers. 4, 4, 2; so, species praeclara oppidi, Cic. Rep. 3, 32, 44; id. Verr. 2, 4, 58, § 129: sphaerae (Archimedeae), etc., id. Rep. 1, 14, 21: navium, Caes. B. G. 4, 25; cf.: nova atque inusitata, id. ib. 2, 31: horribilis, id. ib. 7, 36: agro bene culto nihil potest esse specie ornatius, Cic. Sen. 16, 57: horum hominum species est honestissima, id. Cat. 2, 8, 18: ad speciem magnifico ornatu, as to outward appearance, id. Verr. 2, 1, 22, § 58: populi, id. Rep. 3, 33, 45: nec ulla deformior species est civitatis, quam illa, in quā opulentissimi optimi putantur, id. Rep. 1, 34, 51: speciem honesti habere, the look or semblance of what is right, id. Off. 3, 2, 7: turba majorem quam pro numero speciem ferens, Curt. 3, 2, 3; cf.: fallaces sunt rerum species, quibus credimus, Sen. Ben. 4, 34, 1.

Something seen, a spectacle, sight, appearance: ponite itaque ante oculos miseram quidem illam ac flebilem speciem, Cic. Phil. 11, 3: non tulit hanc speciem furiatā mente Coroebus, Verg. A. 2, 407 (cf. I. supra).

Trop., that which is seen by the mind, an idea, notion: hanc illi ἰδέαν appellabant: nos recte speciem possumus dicere, Cic. Ac. 1, 8, 30; cf. id. Top. 7, 30: insidebat in ejus mente species eloquentiae, id. Or. 5, 18: excellentis eloquentiae speciem et formam adumbrabimus, id. ib. 14, 43: species, forma et notio viri boni, id. Off. 3, 20, 81; cf.: prima sit haec forma et species et origo tyranni, id. Rep. 2, 29, 51: qui species alias veri scelerisque capiet, Hor. S. 2, 3, 208: utinam non inanes species anxio animo figuraret, Curt. 7, 1, 36.

In partic. A look, show, seeming, appearance, semblance, pretence, cloak, color, pretext, etc. (opp. that which is real, actual, etc.). In gen.: obiciuntur saepe formae, quae reapse nullae sunt, speciem autem offerunt, Cic. Div. 1, 37, 81: ista securitas specie quidem blanda sed reapse, etc., id. Lael. 13, 47: cujus rei species erat acceptio frumenti, Sall. J. 29, 4: fraudi imponere aliquam speciem juris, Liv. 9, 11: specie liberā ... re verā, etc., id. 35, 31; cf.: litteras inanis vanā specie libertatis adumbratas esse, id. 33, 31, 2 Weissenb. ad loc.: plurimi ibi a fallaci equitum specie agasonibusque excepti sunt, id. 7, 15, 7: si dux primam speciem adpropinquantis terroris sustinuisset, id. 44, 6, 6 Weissenb. ad loc.: quae (nomina) primā specie admirationem, re explicatā risum movent, Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61: quaedam humanitatis habent primam speciem ut misericordia, id. Tusc. 4, 14, 32: similitudinem quandam speciemque sapientium gerere, id. Off. 3, 4, 16: si speciem utilitatis voluptas habere dicetur, id. ib. 3, 33, 120.

Hence, Esp. with gen. of that which is assumed or pretended, under pretext of, under pretence of, etc. With abl.: fortis viros specie quādam virtutis adsimulatae tenebat, Cic. Cael. 6, 14.

With sub: sub specie tutelae liberūm ejus invasisse regnum, Curt. 9, 2, 7; 10, 6, 21; Liv. 44, 24, 4.

With per: per speciem celebrandarum cantu epularum, Liv. 9, 30, 8: per speciem auxilii Byzantiis ferendi, re ipsā, etc., id. 39, 35, 4; 40, 13, 8; 42, 52, 8.

With in: si quis in speciem refectionis (viae) deteriorem viam facit, Dig. 43, 11, 1, § 2.—Adverb.: in speciem, for a show, as a pretence: haud dubio in speciem consensu fit ad Poenos deditio, Liv. 24, 1, 8: dilatā in speciem actione, re ipsā sublatā, id. 3, 9, 13; so, ad speciem tabernaculis relictis, Caes. B. C. 2, 35 fin.; id. B. G. 1, 51; Quint. Cic. Pet. Cons. 5, 18 al.

Also with gen.: in speciem, after the manner, in the fashion, like (cf. tamquam; poet.): inque chori ludunt speciem, Ov. M. 3, 685: in montis speciem curvari, id. ib. 15, 509; cf.: scorpiones vermiculos ovorum specie pariunt, Plin. 11, 25, 30, § 86.

Pregn., like the Engl. show, for ornament, display, splendor, beauty (cf.: dignitas, venustas): ut in usum boni sint et in speciem populo, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 42: fuit pompa, fuit species, fuit incessus saltem Seplasiā dignus et Capuā, Cic. Pis. 11, 24: adhibere quandam in dicendo speciem atque pompam, id. de Or. 2, 72, 294: speciem candoremque caeli, id. Tusc. 1, 28, 68; cf. id. N. D. 2, 37; 2, 39: specie et motu capere homines, id. Brut. 62, 224: triumpho praebere speciem, Liv. 34, 52, 10: addere speciem, id. 37, 40; 9, 40: si fortunatum species et gratia praestat, Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 2, 203: ducit te species, id. S. 2, 2, 35: speciem Saturnia vaccae probat, Ov. M. 1, 612: juvenis, Juv. 10, 310: corporis, Curt. 7, 9, 19; Vitr. 3, 2.

Transf. Concr. (for simulacrum, i. q. εἴδωγον ). An appearance in sleep, a vision, apparition (mostly poet.), Lucr. 1, 125: repetit quietis Ipsa suae speciem, Ov. M. 9, 473: voce suā specieque viri turbata soporem Excutit, id. ib. 11, 677: in quiete utrique consuli eadem dicitur visa species viri, etc., Liv. 8, 6: per nocturnas species, id. 26, 19; cf.: mirabundi velut ad somni vanam speciem, id. 33, 32, 7; Sil. 13, 394; Curt. 3, 6, 7.

A likeness, image, statue: tum species ex aere vetus concidit ... Et divum simulacra peremit fulminis ardor ... Sancta Jovis species ... Haec tardata diu species tandem celsā in sede locata, Cic. poët. Div. 1, 12, 21.

Reputation, honor: o speciem dignitatemque populi Romani, quam reges pertimescant, Cic. Dom. 33, 89.

The particular thing among many to which the looks are turned; hence, a particular sort, kind, or quality, a species: species pars est generis, App. Asclep. p. 78, 26: harum singula genera minimum in binas species dividi possunt, etc., Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 3; cf.: genus est id, quod sui similes communione quādam, specie autem differentes, duas aut plures complectitur partes, Cic. de Or. 1, 42, 189: primum illud genus quaerimus, ex quo ceterae species suspensae sunt ... Homo species est, ut Aristoteles ait, canis species: commune his vinculum animal, Sen. Ep. 58, 7; Varr. R. R. 1, 9, 4; id. L. L. 10, § 18; Cic. Inv. 1, 27, 40; id. Or. 10, 33; id. Top. 18, 68; Quint. 3, 6, 26; 3, 10, 2; 5, 10, 90 al.: codicillis multas species vestis, argenti specialiter reliquit, many kinds or sorts, Dig. 34, 2, 19; cf. ib. 41, 1, 7.

In later jurid. lang., a special case: proponitur apud eum species talis: Sutor puero discenti cervicem percussit, etc., Dig. 9, 2, 5 fin.; 31, 1, 85.

In late Lat., goods, wares (that are classed together; cf. assortment); publicae, Cod. Just. 1, 2, 10: annonariae, ib. 11, 73, 3: vendenda sit species, i. e. wine, Pall. Oct. 14, 3.—Esp., spices, drugs, etc., Macr. S. 7, 8 med.; Dig. 39, 4, 16, § 7; Pall. Oct. 14 fin.