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Lewis : stimulus

stimulus, stĭmŭlus, i, m. for stig-mulus, from the root stig; Gr. στίζω ; v. stilus. A goad for driving cattle, slaves, etc. (class., esp. in the trop. sense). Lit.: jam lora teneo, jam stimulum in manu: Agite equi, etc., Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 112: parce, puer, stimulis, et fortius utere loris, Ov. M. 2, 127: aut stimulo tardos increpuisse boves, Tib. 1, 1, 30 (12); cf. Ov. M. 14, 647: ita te forabunt patibulatum per vias Stimulis, Plaut. Ps. 1, 1, 54: aliquem stimulo fodere, id. Curc. 1, 2, 40: dum te stimulis fodiam, Cic. Phil. 2, 34, 86: numquam stimulo lacessat juvencum, Col. 2, 2, 26.—As a term of abuse of slaves: stimulorum seges, Plaut. Aul. 1, 1, 6; cf. id. Cas. 2, 8, 11: stimulorum tritor, id. Pers. 5, 2, 17.—Prov.: si stimulos pugnis caedis, manibus plus dolet, i. e. an evil is aggravated by foolish opposition, Plaut. Truc. 4, 2, 55; cf.: advorsum stimulum calces, kick against the pricks, Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 28.

Trop., a goad (as in Engl., either that which vexes, irritates, torments, or, more freq., that which spurs on, incites, stimulates). A sting, torment, pang: mens sibi conscia factis ... adhibet stimulos torretque flagellis, Lucr. 3, 1019; cf.: subesse caecum aliquem cordi stimulum, id. 3, 874: ne illa stimulum longum habet, quae usque illinc cor pungit meum, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 79: stimulos doloris contemnere, Cic. Tusc. 2, 27, 66; cf.: (res malae) lacerant, vexant, stimulos admovent, etc., id. ib. 3, 16, 35: stimulos in pectore caecos Condidit, Ov. M. 1, 726.

A spur, incentive, incitement, stimulus: animum gloriae stimulis concitare, Cic. Arch. 11, 29: quidam industriae ac laboris (with illecebrae libidinum), id. Cael. 5, 12: quot stimulos admoverit homini victoriae studioso, id. Sest. 5, 12; cf.: defendendi Vatinii, id. Fam. 1, 9, 19: omnia pro stimulis facibusque ciboque furoris Accipit, Ov. M. 6, 480: ardet, et injusti stimulis agitatur amoris, id. F. 2, 779: non hostili modo odio sed amoris etiam stimulis, Liv. 30, 14, 1: ad hanc voluntatem ipsius naturae stimulis incitamur, Cic. Rep. 1, 2, 3: ad dicendum etiam pudor stimulos habet, Quint. 10, 7, 16: agrariae legis tribuniciis stimulis plebs furebat, Liv. 2, 54; cf.: acriores quippe aeris alieni stimulos esse, id. 6, 11: subdere stimulos animo, id. 6, 34: in aliquem stimulis accendi, Tac. H. 3, 45; cf.: suis stimulis excitos Moesiae duces, id. ib. 3, 53: secundae res acrioribus stimulis animos explorant, id. ib. 1, 15: acres Subjectat lasso stimulos, Hor. S. 2, 7, 94: stimulos sub pectore vertit Apollo, Verg. A. 6, 101: movere acres stimulos irarum, Luc. 2, 324: accensae stimulis majoribus irae, Stat. Th. 11, 497: dare stimulos laudum, id. Achill. 1, 203.

In milit. lang., a pointed stake concealed beneath the surface of the ground, to repel hostile troops (syn.: sudes, stipes), Caes. B. G. 7, 73 fin.: se stimulis induere, id. ib. 7, 82.