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Lewis : autem

autem, autem, conj. [v. aut init.], on the other hand, but, yet, however, nevertheless; sometimes an emphasized and (it is never found at the beginning of a clause, but after one or more words; v. fin.; like at, it joins to a preceding thought a new one, either entirely antithetical or simply different; it differs from the restricting sed in like manner with at; v. at init., and cf.: [Popilius imperator tenebat provinciam; in cujus exercitu Catonis filius tiro militabat. Cum autem Popilio videretur unam dimittere legionem, Catonis quoque filium ... dimisit. Sed cum amore pugnandi in exercitu permansisset, Cato ad Popilium scripsit, etc.], Cic. Off. 1, 11, 36 B. and K. (most freq. in philos. lang.; rare in the histt., being used by Caes. only 59 times, by Sall. 23, and by Tac. 31; and very rare in the poets). In joining an entirely antithetical thought, on the contrary, but = at quidem, at vero, σὲ σή, esp. freq. with the pronouns ego, tu, ille, qui, etc.: Ait se obligāsse crus fractum Aesculapio, Apollini autem bracchium, Plaut. Men. 5, 3, 9: Nam injusta ab justis impetrari non decet, Justa autem ab injustis petere insipientiast, id. Am. prol. 35: ego hic cesso, quia ipse nihil scribo: lego autem libentissime, Cic. Fam. 16, 22; id. de Or. 1, 25, 115; Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 43: i sane cum illo, Phrygia; tu autem, Eleusium, Huc intro abi ad nos, id. Aul. 2, 5, 7; id. Capt. 2, 3, 4; id. Bacch. 4, 8, 58; id. Mil. 4, 4, 13; id. Ep. 5, 2, 7; Cic. Ac. 2, 19, 61: mihi ad enarrandum hoc argumentumst comitas, Si ad auscultandum vostra erit benignitas. Qui autem auscultare nolit, exsurgat foras, Plaut. Mil. 2, 1, 3; so id. Ep. 2, 2, 95; id. Capt. 3, 4, 24: Quid tu aïs, Gnatho? Numquid habes quod contemnas? Quid tu autem, Thraso? Ter. Eun. 3, 2, 22: e principio oriuntur omnia; ipsum autem nullā ex re aliā nasci potest, Cic. Tusc. 1, 23, 54.

In joining a thought that is simply different. In gen., on the other hand, but, moreover. Absol., as the Gr. σέ : Vehit hic clitellas, vehit hic autem alter senex, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 91: cum Speusippum, sororis filium, Plato philosophiae quasi heredem reliquisset, duo autem praestantissimos studio atque doctrinā, Xenocratem Chalcedonium et Aristotelem Stagiritem, etc., Cic. Ac. 1, 4, 17; id. Off. 1, 5, 16: Alexandrum consultum, cui relinqueret regnum, voluisse optimum deligi, judicatum autem ab ipso optimum Perdiccam, cui anulum tradidisset, Curt. 10, 6, 16: Atque haec in moribus. De benevolentiā autem, quam etc., Cic. Off. 1, 15, 46 sq.; 1, 23, 81: Sed poëtae quid quemque deceat ex personā judicabunt; nobis autem personam imposuit natura etc., id. ib. 1, 28, 97; 1, 28, 98; 1, 43, 152: Quod semper movetur aeternum est; quod autem motum adfert alicui etc., id. Tusc. 1, 23, 53; 1, 28, 68 sq.; 1, 30, 74; 1, 36, 87.—So sometimes when one conditional sentence is opposed to another, si—sin autem, in Gr. εἰ μέν— εἰ σέ : Nam si supremus ille dies non exstinctionem, sed commutationem adfert loci, quid optabilius? Sin autem etc., Cic. Tusc. 1, 49, 117; 1, 49, 118 al.—In adducing an example of a rule: Et Demosthenes autem ad Aeschinem orationem in prooemio convertit, et M. Tullius etc., Quint. 4, 1, 66 Spald.; also in passing from a particular to a general thought: Et sane plus habemus quam capimus. Insatiabilis autem avaritia est etc., Curt. 8, 8, 12.

Preceded by quidem, as in Gr. μέν—σέ (perh. most freq. in Cicero's philosophical works, under the influence of Greek style): Et haec quidem hoc modo; nihil autem melius extremo, Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99: Sed nunc quidem valetudini tribuamus aliquid, cras autem etc., id. ib. 1, 49, 119; id. Off. 1, 7, 24; and thus in Tac. several times, but only in Ann. and Or.: bene intellegit ceteros quidem iis niti... Marcellum autem et Crispum attulisse etc., Or. 8; 18 bis; 25; A. 3, 53; 3, 73; 4, 28.—So often in transitions from one subject to another: Ac de inferendā quidem injuriā satis dictum est. Praetermittendae autem defensionis etc., Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27 sq.; 1, 13, 41; 1, 45, 160.—So very often in Vulg. in direct reproduction of μέν—σέ : Ego quidem baptizo vos in aquā in paenitentiam; qui autem post me etc., Matt. 3, 11; 9, 37; 13, 23; 13, 32; 17, 11 sq.; 23, 28; 25, 33; 26, 24.

Esp. In any kind of transition: M. Antonius in eo libro, quem unum reliquit, disertos ait se vidisse multos, eloquentem omnino neminem. Vir autem acerrimo ingenio (sic enim fuit) multa etc., Cic. Or. 5, 18: hic (pater) prout ipse amabat litteras, omnibus doctrinis, quibus puerilis aetas impertiri debet, filium erudivit: erat autem in puero summa suavitas oris, Nep. Att. 1, 2; also in questions: Quid autem magno opere Oppianicum metuebat, etc., Cic. Clu. 60, 167. Freq. several times repeated: Expetuntur autem divitiae cum ad usus vitae necessarios, tum ad perfruendas voluptates: in quibus autem major est animus, in iis pecuniae cupiditas spectat ad opes, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 8, 24 and 25; cf. Wopkens, Lectt. Tull. pp. 53 and 122: Orbis situm dicere adgredior... Dicam autem alias plura et exactius, Mel. prooem. 2.

In repeating a word from a previous clause, in continuing a train of thought: admoneri me satis est: admonebit autem nemo alius nisi rei publicae tempus, Cic. Pis. 38, 94: disces quam diu voles; tam diu autem velle debebis, quoad etc., id. Off. 1, 1, 2: nunc quod agitur, agamus: agitur autem, liberine vivamus an mortem obeamus, id. Phil. 11, 10, 24. —So esp. in impassioned discourse, Plant. Mil. 3, 1, 84: humanum amare est, humanum autem ignoscere est, id. Merc. 2, 2, 48; id. Ps. 4, 8, 1: quot potiones mulsi! quot autem prandia! id. Stich. 1, 3, 68; id. Ep. 5, 2, 6: quā pulchritudine urbem, quibus autem opibus praeditam, servitute oppressam tenuit civitatem, Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 57.

Like sed, vero, igitur, etc., in resuming a train of thought interrupted by a parenthesis: Omnino illud honestum, quod ex animo excelso magnificoque quaerimus, animi efficitur non corporis viribus: exercendum tamen corpus et ita adficiendum est, ut oboedire consilio rationique possit in exsequendis negotiis et in labore tolerando: honestum autem id, quod exquirimus, totum est positum in animi curā, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 23, 79; 1, 43, 153.

In introducing a parenthetical clause itself: quae autem nos ut recta aut recte facta dicamus, si placet (illi autem appellant κατορθώματα ) omnes numeros virtutis continent, Cic. Fin. 3, 7, 24: quod vitium effugere qui volet (omnes autem velle debent) adhibebit etc., id. Off. 1, 6, 18; 1, 33, 120; id. Tusc. 1, 33, 80; 1, 36, 88: In primis foedera ac leges (erant autem eae duodecim tabuiae et quaedam regiae leges) conquiri etc., Liv. 6, 1, 10; Curt. 4, 6, 2: ex hoc Quodcumque est (minus est autem quam rhetoris aera) Discipuli custos praemordet, Juv. 7, 217.

In enumerations, for the purpose of adding an important circumstance: magnus dicendi labor, magna res, magna dignitas, summa autem gratia, but, and indeed, Cic. Mur. 13, 29: animis omnes tenduntur insidiae... vel ab eā, quae penitus in omni sensu implicata insidet, imitatrix boni, voluptas, malorum autem mater omnium, yea, the parent of all evil, id. Leg. 1, 17, 47; id. N. D. 2, 22, 58: docet ratio mathematicorum, luna quantum absit a proxumā Mercurii stellā, multo autem longius a Veneris, id. Div. 2, 43, 91.

In the syllogism, to introduce the minor proposition (the assumptio or propositio minor; cf. atque, IV. 9., and atqui, II. D.), now, but; but now: Aut hoc, aut illud: hoc autem non, igitur illud. Itemque: aut hoc, aut illud: non autem hoc: illud igitur, Cic. Top. 14, 56: Si lucet, lucet: lucet autem, lucet igitur, id. Ac. 2, 30, 96: Si dicis te mentiri verumque dicis, mentiris: dicis autem te mentiri verumque dicis: mentiris igitur, id. ib.; id. Top. 2, 9; id. Tusc. 5, 16, 47.

Like the Gr. σέ or σή in adding an emphatic question (freq. in the comic poets), but, indeed. In gen.: Quem te autem deum nominem? Plaut. As. 3, 3, 126: Perii: quid hoc autemst mali? Ter. Eun. 5, 7, 5: Quī istuc? Quae res te sollicitat autem? id. Heaut. 2, 3, 10: Quae autem divina? Vigere, sapere, invenire, meminisse, Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 65: Quo modo autem moveri animus ad appetendum potest, si id, quod videtur, non percipitur? πῶς σή, id. Ac. 2, 8, 25: Quo modo autem tibi placebit JOVEM LAPIDEM jurare, cum scias etc., id. Fam. 7, 12, 2: Veni ad Caesarem: quis est autem Caesar? Flor. 3, 10, 11.—So in exclamations: Quantā delectatione autem adficerer, cum etc., Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 98.

In questions implying rebuke, reproach: Ba. Metuo credere. Ps. Credere autem? eho, etc., Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 70: Th. Ego non tangam meam? Ch. Tuam autem, furcifer? yours do you say? yours indeed! Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 28.

In a question where a correction is made: Num quis testis Postumum appellavit? testis autem? (witness did I say?) num accusator? Cic. Rab. Post. 5, 10: Alio me vocat numerosa gloria tua: alio autem? quasi vero etc., Plin. Pan. 28: Quid tandem isti mali in tam tenerā insulā non fecissent? non fecissent autem? imo quid ante adventum meum non fecerunt? Cic. Att. 6, 2; 5, 13; 7, 1: Adimas etiam Hispanias? Et si inde cessero, in Africam transcendes. Transcendes autem dico? Liv. 21, 44, 7 Weissenb.

And in questions sed autem are sometimes both used, especially by the comic poets, but indeed, but now, like the Gr. ἀλλά—σέ ()Αλλὰ ποῦ σὲ βούλει καθεζόμενοι ἀναγνῶμεν ; Plat. Phaedr. 228 E.): Sed autem quid si hanc hinc apstulerit quispiam Sacram urnam Veneris? Plaut. Rud. 2, 5, 15; and separated: Sed quid haec hic autem tam diu ante aedīs stetit? id. Truc. 2, 3, 14: Attat Phaedriae Pater venit. Sed quid pertimui autem, belua? Ter. Phorm. 4, 2, 11: Sed quid ego haec autem nequiquam ingrata revolvo? * Verg. A. 2, 101.—Once ast autem: ast autem tenui quae candent lumine Phatnae, Cic. Fragm. ap. Prisc. p. 1170 P. (IV. 2, p. 555 Orell.).

With interjections: Heia autem inimicos! Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 20: Ecce autem litigium, but lo! id. Men. 5, 2, 34; so id. Curc. 1, 2, 41; id. Most. 2, 1, 35; id. Mil. 2, 2, 48; id. Most. 3, 1, 131; 3, 1, 146: Ecce autem alterum, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 6 Ruhnk.: Ecce autem subitum divortium, Cic. Clu. 5, 14; so id. Verr. 2, 5, 34; id. Leg. 1, 2, 5; id. Rep. 1, 35, 55; id. Or. 9, 30: Ecce autem aliud minus dubium, Liv. 7, 35, 10: Eccere autem capite nutat, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 52; so id. Pers. 2, 4, 29: eccui autem non proditur [revertenti]? Cic. Mur. 33, 68.!*? In good prose writers autem is usu. placed after the first word of a clause; but if several words, a subst. and prep., the verb esse with the predicate, a word with a negative, etc., together form one idea, then autem stands after the second or third word. But the poets, especially the comic poets, allow themselves greater liberty, and sometimes place this particle, without any necessity in the nature of the clause, in the third, fourth, or fifth place; but autem is never found in good writers at the beginning of a clause or sentence; cf. Quint. 1, 5, 39. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 558-588.