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Lewis : superbus

superbus, sŭperbus, a, um, adj. super; cf. Gr. ὑπέρβιος . In a bad sense, that thinks himself above others, haughty, proud, arrogant, insolent, discourteous, uncivil, rude, supercilious, domineering (cf.: arrogans, insolens, fastidiosus, vanus, elatus): reges odisse superbos, Poët. ap. Cic. Att. 6, 3, 7: reges, Lucr. 5, 1222: domini, id. 2, 1091; Verg. A. 12, 236: juvenis, id. ib. 3, 326; 10, 514: victor, id. G. 3, 226: non decet superbum esse hominem servom, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 64: freti virtute et viribus superbi, id. Am. 1, 1, 58: superbum se praebuit in fortunā, Cic. Att. 8, 4, 1: vide ne superbi (animi) sit aspernari ejusdem liberalitatem, id. Fam. 4, 9, 4: atque meo nunc Superbus incedis malo, Hor. Epod. 15, 18: licet superbus ambules pecuniā, id. ib. 4, 5: opibus superbi, Verg. A. 5, 268: utrum superbiorem te pecunia facit, an quod te imperator consulit, Cic. Fam. 7, 13, 1: laudato pavone superbior, Ov. M. 13, 802: homines superbissimi, Sall. J. 31, 12; Auct. B. Afr. 57, 6: eum, qui de suā unius sententiā omnia gerat, superbum judico magis quam sapientem, Liv. 44, 22, 11: non respondere vereor, ne superbum sit, id. 42, 40, 2.—In a pun on the literal meaning of super: Merc. Faciam ego te superbum, nisi hinc abis. So. Quonam modo? Merc. Auferere, non abibis, si ego fustem sumpsero, I will make you, i. e. one who rides or is carried, rather than walks, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 201.

Transf., of things concr. or abstr.: aures, Liv. 34, 5, 13: oculi, Ov. M. 6, 169: arces, Hor. Epod. 7, 5: postisque superbos Unguit amaracino, Lucr. 4, 1179: sceptra, id. 5, 1137: voces, id. 5, 1173: dens, delicate, fastidious, squeamish, Hor. S. 2, 6, 87: corpus, id. ib. 2, 2, 109: inguen, id. Epod. 8, 19: manus, Sen. Med. 205: vultus, id. Herc. Fur. 721: non est inhumana virtus neque immanis neque superba, Cic. Lael. 14, 50: victoria, quae naturā insolens et superba est, id. Marcell. 3, 9: pax, Liv. 9, 12, 1: jura, id. 31, 29, 9; cf.: superbissima lex, id. 4, 4, 10: mutatio vestis, id. 9, 18, 4: vita, Prop. 3, 11 (4, 10), 48: aures quarum est judicium superbissimum, i. e. very severe, utterly impartial, Cic. Or. 44, 150: scilicet aspera mea natura, difficilis aditus, superba responsa, uncivil, arrogant, id. Vatin. 3, 8: cujus tu superbissima decreta et preces repudiasti, id. Pis. 27, 64: ipsum dicendi genus nihil superbum, nihil elatum saltem ac sublime desideret, Quint. 6, 2, 19; cf. id. 11, 1, 37.—With foll. inf., Sil. 3, 374; 12, 433; 14, 646.

Neutr. absol.: reliqua multo major multitudo neque excluderetur suffragiis, ne superbum esset, nec valeret nimis, ne esset periculosum, Cic. Rep. 2, 22, 39: superba loqui, Prop. 1, 10, 22.—Superbum est, with a subject-clause, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 20, § 45; Ov. M. 13, 17.

Sŭperbus, i, m., surname of the younger Tarquin, the last king of Rome, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, 28; id. Tusc. 1, 16, 38; Liv. 1, 49, 1; Ov. F. 2, 718 al.; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 37, 58.

In a good sense, proud, superior, excellent, distinguished; splendid, magnificent, superb (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): quae (virtus) inter hanc fortunam et illam superba incedit cum magno utriusque contemptu, Sen. Ep. 76, 21: populum late regem belloque superbum, Verg. A. 1, 21: animae virtute et factis, Sil. 10, 573: triumphus, Hor. C. 1, 35, 3; 1, 37, 31: merum, id. ib. 2, 14, 27; cf.: limina civium potentiorum, id. Epod. 2, 7: postes, id. C. 4, 15, 7: Tibur, Verg. A. 7, 630: Phoebe superbe lyrā, Tib. 4, 2, 22: sedes Dolopum, Verg. A. 2, 785; Cat. 64, 85: domus, Sen. Herc. Oet. 509: dapes, Mart. 3, 45, 3.

In partic. Superba pira, an excellent kind of pear, perh. the muscatel, Col. 5, 10, 18; Plin. 15, 15, 16, § 54; cf. superbia, II. B.

Olivae, of a very large and plump kind, Plin. 15, 3, 4, § 17.

Herba = chamaemeli, App. Herb. 23.—Hence, adv. (acc. to I.), haughtily, proudly, superciliously. Form sŭ-perbē, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 38; Ter. Phorm. 5, 7 (8), 22; Lucr. 5, 1224: imperare, Caes. B. G. 1, 31 (with crudeliter); Liv. 2, 45, 6 (with insolenter); 37, 10, 2 (with contemptim); 24, 25, 8 (opp. humiliter); 9, 14; 10, 10: Rhodii, superbe commemoratis meritis suis, etc., id. 44, 14, 8.

Form sŭperbĭter (anteclass.), Naev. and Afran. ap. Non. 515, 10 sq.; 516, 1; Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 1010 P. (Enn. p. 180, 40 Vahl.).

Comp.: superbius, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 11: preces alicujus superbius accipere, Tac. A. 2, 37.

Sup.: superbissime, Cic. Pis. 27, 64.