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Lewis : supero

supero, sŭpĕro, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. and a. [id.]. Neutr., to go over, to rise above, overtop, surmount. Lit. (very rare; syn. transcendo): maximo saltu superabit gravidus armatis equus, surmounted, leaped the wall, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Trag. v. 97 Vahl.): sol superabat ex mari, Plaut. Stich. 2, 2, 41: ripis superat mihi atque abundat pectus laetitia meum, id. ib. 2, 1, 6: jugo superans, passing over the summit, Verg. A. 11, 514: superat agger ad auras, Stat. Th. 4, 458: (angues) superant capite et cervicibus altis, Verg. A. 2, 219.

Trop. (freq. and class.). To have the upper hand or superiority, to be superior, to overcome, surpass (syn. vinco): denique nostra superat manus, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 80: quā (sc. virtute) nostri milites facile superabant, Caes. B. G. 3, 14; 1, 40: numero militum, Liv. 29, 30, 8; cf.: numero hostis, virtute Romanus superat, id. 9, 32, 7: tantum superantibus malis, id. 3, 16, 4: sorte, id. 38, 36, 10: victor, superans animis, Verg. A. 5, 473: hostes equitatu superare, Nep. Ages. 3, 6: unde salo superant venti, Prop. 3, 5 (4, 4), 29: superat sententia Sabini, Caes. B. G. 5, 31: si superaverit morbus, Plin. Ep. 7, 1, 3.

To exceed, be in excess, be superfluous; to be abundant, to abound (syn. supersum): in quo et deesse aliquam partem et superare mendosum est, Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 83: pecunia superabat? at egebas, id. Or. 67, 224: uter igitur est divitior? cui deest an cui superat? id. Par. 6, 3, 49: quis tolerare potest, illis divitias superare, nobis rem familiarem etiam ad necessaria deesse? Sall. C. 20, 11: cui quamquam virtus, gloria ... superabant, id. J. 64, 1: quae Jugurthae fesso superaverant, had been too much for, id. ib. 70, 2: de eo quod ipsis superat, Cic. Fin. 5, 15, 42: Quinto delegabo, si quid aeri meo alieno superabit et emptionibus, id. Att. 13, 46, 3: superabat umor in arvis, Lucr. 5, 804: superante multitudine, Liv. 3, 5: cum otium superat, id. 3, 17: num tibi superat superbia? Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 86: gentis superant tibi laudes, Tib. 4, 1, 28: dum superat gregibus juventas, Verg. G. 3, 63: si superant fetus, id. ib. 1, 189: quam facile tunc sit omnia impedire et quam hoc Caesari superet, non te fallit, perh. how exceedingly easy it would have been, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 5, 3 dub.

To be left over, to remain, survive (syn. supersum): quae superaverint animalia capta, immolant, Caes. B. G. 6, 17: quod superaret pecuniae, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 84, § 195: quae arma superabunt, Pompon. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, § 4; Plaut. Truc. 5, 49: nihil ex raptis commeatibus superabat, Liv. 22, 40, 8: pepulerunt jam paucos superantes, id. 22, 49, 5: si de quincunce remota est Uncia, quid superat? Hor. A. P. 328: sex superant versus, Prop. 4 (5), 2, 57: pars quae sola mei superabit corporis, ossa, Tib. 3, 2, 17; Plaut. Truc. prol. 20: superet modo Mantua nobis, Verg. E. 9, 27: uter eorum vitā superarit, whichever survives, Caes. B. G. 6, 19: quae superaverint animalia, id. ib. 6, 17: quid puer Ascanius? superatne et vescitur aurā? Verg. A. 3, 339: captae superavimus urbi, id. ib. 2, 643; Liv. 29, 7, 7: quid igitur superat, quod purgemus? id. 45, 24, 1.

Act., to go or pass over, rise above; to mount, ascend; to surmount, overtop. Lit. In gen.: in altisono Caeli clipeo temo superat Stellas, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 73 Müll. (Vahl. Enn. p. 119, om. stellas): tempestas summas ripas fluminis superavit, Caes. B. C. 1, 48: ventosum aequor, Ov. Ib. 591: fluvium, Luc. 4, 150: mare, Sen. Oet. 128: pedibus salsas lacunas, Lucr. 3, 1031: munitiones, Liv. 5, 8, 10: quas (Alpes) nullā dum viā superatas, id. 5, 34, 6; 21, 26, 4; 21, 30, 5; 21, 38, 1; 23, 45, 3: Tauro monte superato, id. 35, 13, 4: montes, Verg. G. 3, 270: Alpes cursu, Luc. 1, 183: immensa montium juga, Plin. Pan. 81, 1: Caucasum, Curt. 7, 3, 22: hoc jugum, Verg. A. 6, 676: fossas, id. ib. 9, 314: summi fastigia tecti Ascensu, id. ib. 2, 303; cf.: caprae gravido superant vix ubere limen, id. G. 3, 317: retia saltu (vulpes), Ov. M. 7, 767: tantum itineris, to traverse, pass over, Tac. Agr. 33: regionem castrorum, to go past or beyond, Caes. B. C. 1, 69; cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 19, 43: insidias circa ipsum iter locatas, Liv. 2, 50, 6: collocatur in eo turris tabulatorum quae superaret fontis fastigium, but so as to overtop, command, Hirt. B. G. 8, 41: superat (Parnassus) cacumine nubes, Ov. M. 1, 317.

In partic. Naut. t. t., to sail by or past a place, a promontory, etc.; to double or weather a point, etc.; promontorium, Lucil. ap. Serv. Verg. A. 1, 244; Auct. B. Afr. 62, 3; Liv. 26, 26, 1; 30, 25, 6; 31, 23, 3; Tac. A. 15, 46 et saep.: Euboeam, Nep. Them. 3, 3: cursu Isthmon, Ov. Tr. 1, 11, 5: intima Regna Liburnorum et fontem Timavi, Verg. A. 1, 244 Serv.

Poet., transf.: musarum scopulos, Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 223 Vahl.).

To rise above, exceed in height: ut alibi umbilico tenus aqua esset, alibi genua vix superaret, Liv. 36, 45, 9; cf.: posterior partes superat mensura priores, i. e. exceeds in size, Ov. M. 15, 378.

Trop., to surpass, excel, exceed, outdo, outstrip in any quality, in value, etc. In gen.: non potest quaestus consistere, si eum sumptus superat, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 74: ne sumptus fructum superet, Varr. R. R. 1, 53: qui omnes homines supero atque antideo cruciabilitatibus animi, Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 3: virtute, laude, dignitate, Cic. Planc. 2, 6 sq.: aut ingenio aut fortunā aut dignitate superari, id. Lael. 3, 11: omnes homines constantiā et gravitate, id. Fam. 1, 9, 16: doctrinā Graecia nos et omni litterarum genere superabat, id. Tusc. 1, 1, 3: auctoritatis pondere et utilitatis ubertate, id. de Or. 1, 44, 195; Hirt. B. G. 8, prooem. § 4: aliquem nobilitate, Ov. P. 3, 2, 56: Phoebum superare canendo, Verg. E. 5, 9: omnes scelere, Liv. 29, 8: aliquem dignitate vitae, Nep. Alcib. 11, 2: aliquem ingenio, id. Dion, 4, 1: duritiā ferrum, Ov. H. 2, 137: vel cursu superare canem vel viribus aprum, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 51: omnes in ceteris artibus, Nep. Epam. 2, 2: summam spem civium incredibili virtute, Cic. Lael. 3, 11: non dubitabam, quin hanc epistulam multi nuntii, fama denique esset ipsa tua celeritate superatura, will outstrip, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1.

In partic., in milit. lang., to overcome, subdue, conquer, vanquish (syn. debello): victis hostibus, quos nemo posse superari ratu'st, Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 24: armatos ac victores, Caes. B. G. 1, 40: maximas nationes, id. ib. 3, 28; 2, 24: quos integros superavissent, id. B. C. 2, 5: bello superatos esse Arvernos et Rutenos a Q. Fabio Maximo, id. B. G. 1, 45: si Helvetios superaverint Romani, id. ib. 1, 17: Massilienses bis proelio navali superati, id. B. C. 2, 22: clam ferro incautum superat, Verg. A. 1, 350: bello superatus, Ov. M. 12, 364: Asiam bello, Nep. Ages. 4, 3: tota insula in unā urbe superata est, Flor. 2, 6.

Transf., in gen.: quem (C. Curium) nemo ferro potuit superare nec auro, Enn. ap. Cic. Rep. 3, 3, 6 (Ann. v. 220 Vahl.): in quo (genere officii) etiam si multi mecum contendent, omnes facile superabo, Cic. Fam. 5, 8, 4: si erum videt superare amorem, Plaut. Aul. 4, 1, 7: hanc (orationem) assidua ac diligens scriptura superabit, Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 150: si meam spem vis improborum fefellerit atque superaverit, id. Cat. 4, 11, 23: injurias fortunae facile veterum philosophorum praeceptis superabat, id. Fin. 4, 7, 17: pareatur necessitati, quam ne dii quidem superant, which even the gods are not above, not superior to, Liv. 9, 4, 16: casus omnes, Verg. A. 11, 244: superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est, id. ib. 5, 710: labores, id. ib. 3, 368: difficultates omnes, Vell. 2, 120, 4: cum incedendi