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Lewis : superus

superus, sŭpĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. sŭpĕr in two passages: super inferque vicinus, Cato, R. R. 149, 1: totus super ignis, Lucr. 1, 649; gen. plur. in signif. I. B. 1. infra, superūm, Verg. A. 1, 4; Ov. M. 1, 251 et saep.), adj. super. Posit. Adj. In gen., that is above, upper, higher: inferus an superus tibi fert deus funera, Liv. And. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.: at ita me di deaeque superi atque inferi et medioxumi, Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36: omnes di deaeque superi, inferi, Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6: ad superos deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: limen superum inferumque salve, Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: portae Phrygiae limen, id. Bacch. 4, 9, 31; 4, 9, 63; Novat. ap. Non. p. 336, 13 (Com. Rel. v. 49 Rib.): carmine di superi placantur, carmine manes, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 138: di, id. C. 1, 1, 30; 4, 7, 18: superis deorum Gratus et imis, id. ib. 1, 10, 19: ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: spectatores superarum rerum atque caelestium, id. N. D. 2, 56, 140: omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes, Verg. A. 6, 788: supera ad convexa, to heaven, id. ib. 6, 241 (Rib. super); 6, 750; 10, 251: cum superum lumen nox intempesta teneret, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, 14 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.): lumen, Lucr. 6, 856: templum superi Jovis, i. e. of the Capitoline Jupiter (opp. Juppiter inferus, i. e. Pluto), Cat. 55, 5; Sen. Herc. Fur. 48: domus deorum, Ov. M. 4, 735: mare superum, the upper, i. e. the Adriatic and Ionian Sea (opp. mare inferum, the lower or Etruscan Sea), Plaut. Men. 2, 1, 11; Cic. de Or. 3, 19, 69; id. Att. 9, 3, 1; Liv. 41, 1, 3; Mel. 2, 4, 1; Plin. 3, 5, 10, § 44; Suet. Caes. 34; 44; so without mare (colloq.): iter ad superum, Cic. Att. 9, 5, 1.—Adverb.: de supero, quom huc accesserit, from above, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 18; so, ex supero, Lucr. 2, 227; 2, 241; 2, 248.

In partic., upper, i. e. of the upper regions or upper world (opp. the lower regions): superā de parte, i. e. of the earth, Lucr. 6, 855: superas evadere ad auras, Verg. A. 6, 128: superum ad lumen ire, id. ib. 6, 680: aurae, Ov. M. 5, 641: orae, Verg. A. 2, 91: limen, id. ib. 6, 680.

Substt. Sŭpĕri, ōrum, m. They who are above (opp. inferi, those in the dungeon), Plaut. Aul. 2, 7, 6: multum fleti ad superos, i. e. those living on earth, Verg. A. 6, 481: (Pompeius) Quam apud superos habuerat magnitudinem, illibatam detulisset ad Inferos, the inhabitants of the upper world, Vell. 2, 48, 2; cf.: ut oblitos superum paterere dolores, Val. Fl. 1, 792: si nunc redire posset ad superos pater, Poët. ap. Charis. 5, p. 252: epistula ad superos scripta, i. e. to the survivors, Plin. 2, 109, 112, § 248.

(Sc. di.) The gods above, the celestial deities: quae Superi Manesque dabant, Verg. A. 10, 34: aspiciunt Superi mortalia, Ov. M. 13, 70: o Superi! id. ib. 1, 196; 14, 729; pro Superi, id. Tr. 1, 2, 59: terris jactatus et alto Vi Superum, Verg. A. 1, 4: illa propago Contemptrix Superum, Ov. M. 1, 161: exemplo Superorum, id. Tr. 4, 4, 19; so, Superorum, id. P. 1, 1, 43: postquam res Asiae Priamique evertere gentem Immeritam visum Superis, Verg. A. 3, 2: scilicet is Superis labor est, id. ib. 4, 379; Hor. C. 1, 6, 16: superis deorum Gratus et imis, id. ib. 1, 10, 19: flectere Superos, Verg. A. 7, 312: te per Superos ... oro, id. ib. 2, 141 et saep.

sŭpĕra, ōrum, n. The heavenly bodies: Hicetas caelum, solem, lunam, stellas, supera denique omnia stare censet, Cic. Ac. 2, 39, 123; cf.: cogitantes supera atque caelestia, haec nostra contemnimus, id. ib. 2, 41, 127: di, quibus est potestas motūs superūm atque inferūm, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 25, 38 (Trag. Rel. v. 163 Vahl.).

Higher places (sc. loca): supera semper petunt, tend upwards, Cic. Tusc. 1, 18, 42: (Alecto) Cocyti petit sedem, supera ardua relinquens, the upper world, Verg. A. 7, 562. Comp.: sŭpĕrĭor, ĭus. Lit., of place, higher, upper: inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem collis castris compleverant, Caes. B. G. 7, 46: dejectus quī potest esse quisquam, nisi in inferiorem locum de superiore motus? Cic. Caecin. 18, 50: in superiore qui habito cenaculo, Plaut. Am. 3, 1, 3: tota domus superior vacat, the upper part of, Cic. Att. 12, 10: superior accumbere, Plaut. Most. 1, 1, 42: de loco superiore dicere, i. e. from the tribunal, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 42, § 102: agere, i. e. from the rostra, id. ib. 2, 1, 5, § 14; and in gen. of the position of the speaker: multos et ex superiore et ex aequo loco sermones habitos, id. Fam. 3, 8, 2: sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo sive ex superiore loquitur, id. de Or. 3, 6, 23: ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis praeliabantur, from a height or eminence, Caes. B. G. 2, 23; so, ex loco superiore, id. ib. 3, 4: loca, id. ib. 1, 10, 4; 3, 3, 2: ex superioribus locis in planitiem descendere, id. B. C. 3, 98: qui in superiore acie constiterant, id. B. G. 1, 24: ex superiore et ex inferiore scripturā docendum, i. e. what goes before and after, the context, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117; cf.: posteriori superius non jungitur, id. Ac. 2, 14, 44.

Trop. Of time or order of succession, former, past, previous, preceding: superiores solis defectiones, Cic. Rep. 1, 16, 25: quid proxima, quid superiore nocte egeris, id. Cat. 1, 1, 1: refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus hostes resciderant, Caes. B. G. 7, 58: superioribus aestivis, Hirt. B. G. 8, 46: superioribus temporibus, Cic. Fam. 5, 17, 1: tempus (opp. posterius), id. Dom. 37, 99: tempora (opp. inferiora), Suet. Claud. 41: annus, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 18, § 47: anno superiore, id. Har. Resp. 8, 15: superioris anni acta, Suet. Caes. 23: in superiore vitā, Cic. Sen. 8, 26: milites superioribus proeliis exercitati, Caes. B. G. 2, 20: testimonium conveniens superiori facto, Hirt. B. G. 8, 53: superius facinus novo scelere vincere, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 44, § 116: superioris more crudelitatis uti, Nep. Thras. 3, 1: superius genus, mentioned previously, Plin. 13, 25, 48, § 146: nuptiae, former marriage, Cic. Clu. 6, 15: vir, first husband, id. Caecin. 6, 17.

Esp., of age, time of life, etc., older, elder, senior, more advanced, former: omnis juventus omnesque superioris aetatis, Caes. B. C. 2, 5: aetate superiores, Varr. R. R. 2, 10, 1: superior Africanus, the Elder, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 25; id. Off. 1, 33, 121: Dionysius, id. ib. 2, 7, 25; Nep. Dion, 1, 1; cf.: quid est aetas hominis, nisi memoria rerum veterum cum superiorum aetate contexitur, Cic. Or. 34, 120.

Of strength or success in battle or any contest, victorious, conquering, stronger, superior: Caesar quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellegebat, Caes. B. G. 7, 65: numero superiores, Hirt. B. G. 8, 12: hoc ipso fiunt superiores, quod nullum acceperant detrimentum, id. ib. 8, 19: se quo impudentius egerit, hoc superiorem discessurum, Cic. Caecin. 1, 2: semper discessit superior, Nep. Hann. 1, 2: si primo proelio Catilina superior discessisset, Sall. C. 39, 4: ut nostri omnibus partibus superiores fuerint, Caes. B. G. 5, 15: multo superiores bello esse, Nep. Alcib. 4, 7: superiorem Appium in causā fecit, Liv. 5, 7, 1.

Of quality, condition, number, etc., higher, more distinguished, greater, superior. With abl. respect.: pecuniis superiores, Cic. Rep. 2, 34, 59: loco, fortunā, famā superiores, id. Lael. 25, 94: habes neminem honoris gradu superiorem, id. Fam. 2, 18, 2: ordine, id. ib. 13, 5, 2: facilitate et humanitate superior, id. Off. 1, 26, 90: si superior ceteris rebus esses, id. Div. in Caecil. 19, 61.

Absol.: ut ii, qui superiores sunt, submittere se debent in amicitiā, sic quodam modo inf