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Lewis : surgo

surgo surgo and surrĭgo (subr-): surrexi and subrexi, surrectum and subrectum, 3 (perf. surregit, Paul. ex Fest. p. 296 Müll.; orig. forms: surrigit, Verg. A. 4, 183; Sen. Q. N. 6, 4: surriguntur, id. Ira, 1, 1 med.: surrigebant, Hier. Vit. Hil. fin.: subrigens, Plin. 9, 29, 47, § 88; 10, 29, 44, § 86: subrigere, id. 18, 35, 89, § 365.

Sync. forms: surrexti, Mart. 5, 79, 1: surrexe, Hor. S. 1, 9, 73), v. a. and n. contr. from surrigo, from sub-rego. Act., to lift or raise up, to raise, erect, elevate (very rare; after the Aug. per., the original uncontracted forms were chiefly used in this sense, to distinguish it from the class. signif., II.): plaudite, valete: lumbos surgite atque extollite, Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 68: caput, Sen. Herc. Fur. 329: omnes capitum hiatus ( = capita hiantia), Stat. Th. 2, 27: surgit caput Apenninus, Avien. Perieg. 484: tot surrigit aures, Verg. A. 4, 183: terrae motus defert montes, surrigit plana, valles extuberat, Sen. Q. N. 6, 4, 2: paulatim subrigens se, Plin. 9, 29, 47, § 88: cristam, id. 10, 29, 44, § 86: cornua, Col. 7, 3, 3; cf. mid.: horrent et surriguntur capilli, rise, stand erect, Sen. Ira, 1, 1, 4: hastae surrectā cuspide in terrā fixae, Liv. 8, 8: mucrone surrecto, id. 7, 10, 10: calcar equo, Front. ad M. Caes. 2, 12: aures subrectae furentibus, Plin. 11, 37, 50, § 137: turres subrectae, Sen. Ep. 86, 4: surrecta moles, Sil. 2, 599.

Neutr., to rise, arise, to get up, stand up (the predominant and class. signif. of the word; syn.: exsurgo, exorior). Lit. In gen.: a mensā surgunt saturi, poti, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 62: a cenā, Plin. Ep. 3, 5, 13: e lecto, Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 4: e lectulo, Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112: de sellā, id. Verr. 2, 4, 65, § 147: ex subselliis, id. Fl. 10, 22: solio, Ov. M. 3, 273: humo, id. ib. 2, 771; id. F. 6, 735: toro, id. M. 9, 702: toris, id. ib. 12, 579: ab umbris ad lumina vitae, Verg. A. 7, 771.

Esp., of an orator: cur, cum tot summi oratores sedeant, ego potissimum surrexerim, Cic. Rosc. Am. 1, 1: ad dicendum, id. de Or. 2, 78, 316; Quint. 2, 6, 2: ad respondendum, Cic. Clu. 18, 51: surgit ad hos Ajax, Ov. M. 13, 2.—Absol.: nolo eum, qui dicturus est, sollicitum surgere, Quint. 12, 5, 4: secundā vigiliā surgit, breaks up the camp, marches, Curt. 5, 4, 23.

Of things, to rise, mount up, ascend (mostly poet.; syn. ascendo): surgat pius ignis ab arā, Ov. P. 4, 9, 53: jussit subsidere valles ... lapidosos surgere montes, id. M. 1, 44: mons Rhipaeus, Mel. 1, 19 fin.: Atlas, id. 3, 10.

Of the sea: fretum, Ov. M. 14, 711: mare, id. ib. 15, 508: aequora, Verg. A. 3, 196: undae, id. ib. 6, 354: amoeni fontes, Quint. 8, 3, 8: cacumina oleae in altum, id. 8, 3, 10: fistula disparibus avenis, Ov. M. 8, 192; cf. poet.: surgens in cornua cervus ( = ferens cornua ardua), i. e. towering, Verg. A. 10, 725: umeri surgunt, id. ib. 10, 476: lux Praecipitatur aquis et aquis nox surgit ab isdem, Ov. M. 4, 92; id. F. 4, 629: sol, Hor. S. 1, 9, 73: dies, Verg. G. 3, 400: luna, id. A. 6, 453: tenebrae, Sen. Thyest. 822: austri, Verg. A. 3, 481: ventus, id. ib. 5, 777: quae (aedes) proxima surgit ovili, stands, Juv. 6, 529.

In partic. To rise, arise, get up from bed, from sleep: ille multo ante lucem surrexit, Cic. Inv. 2, 4, 14: ante lucem, id. Att. 16, 13, a: cum die, Ov. M. 13, 677: mane ad invisas rotas, id. Am. 1, 13, 38: ad lites novas, id. ib. 1, 13, 22: ad praescripta munia, Hor. S. 2, 2, 81.

To rise in growth, to spring up, grow up; to rise in building, be built, etc. (poet. and in post - Aug. prose): venerata Ceres culmo surgeret alto, Hor. S. 2, 2, 124: nec potuere surgere messes, Verg. G. 1, 161: harundo, Ov. M. 13, 891: sementis, Col. 2, 8, 5: surgens arx, Verg. A. 1, 366; cf.: nunc aggere multo Surgit opus, Luc. 2, 679: area cinere mixtisque pumicibus oppleta surrexerat, Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 14: Ascanius surgens, growing, Verg. A. 4, 274.

To ascend, go up: ad auras Aetherias, i. e. into life, Verg. A. 6, 762.

Trop., to rise, arise, occur, etc. (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): multum supra prosam orationem surgit, Quint. 10, 1, 81: quae nunc animo sententia surgit? Verg. A. 1, 582: pugna aspera surgit, id. ib. 9, 667: discordia, id. ib. 12, 313: rumor, Tac. H. 2, 42: honor, Ov. F. 5, 228: ingenium suis velocius annis, id. A. A. 1, 186: non ulla laborum nova mi facies surgit, Verg. A. 6, 104.—Of the swell of a verse: sex mihi surgat opus numeris; in quinque residat (cf.: "in the hexameter rises the fountain's silvery column," Coleridge), Ov. Am. 1, 1, 27.

With in or ad and acc., to rise to or against, to attempt, assume, attack, etc. (poet. and late Lat.): in Teucros Aetolis surgit ab Arpis Tydides, Verg. A. 10, 28: surrecturus in vires, si ipse quoque lacesseretur, Amm. 31, 3, 4: Procopius in res surrexerat novas, id. 26, 5, 8: ad motum certaminum civilium avide surrecturus, id. 21, 15, 1: ad insontium pericula surrexerunt, id. 21, 13, 14; App. M. 7, p. 198, 3.