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Lewis : sustineo

sustineo, sustĭnĕo, tĭnŭi, tentum, 2, v. a. subs for sub, and teneo, to hold up, hold upright, uphold, to bear up, keep up, support, sustain (syn. fulcio). Lit. In gen.: onus alicui, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 68: quantum hominum terra sustinet, id. Poen. prol. 90; id. Men. 1, 1, 13: cum Milo umeris sustineret bovem vivum, Cic. Sen. 10, 33: arma membraque, Liv. 23, 45, 3; Curt. 6, 1, 11; 7, 5, 8: infirmos baculo artus, to support, Ov. M. 6, 27: furcis spectacula, Liv. 1, 35, 9: ingenuā speculum manu, Ov. A. A. 2, 216: fornice exstructo, quo pons sustinebatur, Auct. B. Alex. 19, 4: manibus clipeos et hastam Et galeam, Ov. H. 3, 119: vix populum tellus sustinet illa suum, id. ib. 15 (16), 182: lapis albus Pocula cum cyatho duo sustinet, Hor. S. 1, 6, 117: vas ad sustinenda opsonia, Plin. 33, 11, 49, § 140: aër volatus alitum sustinet, Cic. N. D. 2, 39, 101: lacus omnia illata pondera sustinens, bearing on its surface, Plin. 6, 27, 31, § 127: ecce populus Romanus universus veluti duobus navigiis inpositus binis cardinibus sustinetur, id. 36, 15, 24, § 119: domum pluribus adminiculis fulcit ac sustinet, Plin. Ep. 4, 21, 3: se, to support one's self, hold one's self up, stand, etc., Caes. B. G. 2, 25; so, se a lapsu, Liv. 21, 35: se alis, Ov. M. 4, 411.

In partic., to hold or keep back, to keep in, stay, check, restrain, control, etc. (syn.: refreno, supprimo, moror): currum equosque, Lucil. ap. Cic. Att. 13, 21, 3: currum, id. Lael. 17, 63 (v. infra, II. B. 3.): equos, Caes. B. G. 4, 33: remos, Cic. Att. 13, 21, 3: manum, Ov. F. 5, 302: sustinet a jugulo dextram, Verg. A. 11, 750: a jugulo nitentem sustinet hastam, Stat. Th. 2, 648: flumina Threiciā lyrā, Prop. 3, 2, 2 (4, 1, 42): nunc agendo, nunc sustinendo agmen, Liv. 25, 36, 1: aliud simile miraculum eos sustinuit, id. 5, 39, 2: signa, id. 31, 24, 8: gradum, Ov. F. 6, 398: perterritum exercitum, Caes. B. C. 1, 71: se, Cic. Tusc. 4, 18, 41; Val. Fl. 3, 100: se ab omni assensu, i. e. to refrain, Cic. Ac. 2, 15, 48: se a respondendo, id. ib. 2, 32, 104.

Poet.: celeres vias, i. e. to halt, Sen. Hippol. 794.

Trop. In gen., to uphold, sustain, maintain, preserve: dignitatem et decus civitatis, Cic. Off. 1, 34, 124: causam rei publicae, id. Fam. 9, 8, 2; cf.: causam publicam, id. Div. in Caecil. 8, 27: exspectationem, id. Off. 3, 2, 6: tris personas unus sustineo, characters, id. de Or. 2, 24, 102: personam magistri, to personate, Suet. Gram. 24: quid muneris in rem publicam fungi ac sustinere velitis, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 86, § 199: historiam veterem atque antiquam haec mea senectus sustinet, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 100: vitam, Maecen. ap. Sen. Ep. 101, 11.—Poet.: (arbor) ingentem sustinet umbram, Verg. G. 2, 297.

In partic. To sustain, support, maintain, by food, money, or other means: hac (sc. re frumentariā) alimur et sustinemur, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 5, § 11: veterem amicum suum labentem excepit, fulsit et sustinuit re, fortunā, fide, id. Rab. Post. 16, 43: qui ager non amplius hominum quinque milia potest sustinere, id. Att. 2, 16, 1: alicujus munificentiā sustineri, Liv. 39, 9, 6: hinc patriam parvosque nepotes Sustinet, Verg. G. 2, 515: necessitates aliorum, Liv. 6, 15, 9: plebem, id. 3, 65, 6: penuriam temporum, Col. 9, 14, 17.

To bear, undergo, endure; to hold out against, withstand (so most freq.; syn.: fero, tolero, patior): mala ferre sustinereque, Cic. Tusc. 5, 6, 16: non tu scis, quantum malarum rerum sustineam, Plaut. Merc. 2, 4, 8: innocens suspitionem hanc sustinet causā meā, id. Bacch. 3, 3, 32: labores, Cic. Rep. 1, 3: aestatem, Hirt. B. G. 8, 39, 3: dolorem pedum, Plin. Ep. 1, 12, 5: dolores, id. ib. 1, 12, 8: certamen, Liv. 33, 36, 12: vim hostium, Nep. Hann. 11, 4: periculum, Dig. 18, 6, 1: o dii, quis hujus potentiam poterit sustinere? Cic. Phil. 7, 6, 17: alicujus imperia, Caes. B. G. 1, 31: vulnera, id. ib. 1, 45: Philo ea sustinere vix poterat, quae contra Academicorum pertinaciam dicebantur, Cic. Ac. 2, 6, 18; Vatin. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 10, 2: Peloponnesum, Cic. Att. 10, 12, 7: eos (rogantes), Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 13, 3; Liv. 31, 13: senatus querentes eos non sustinuit, id. 31, 13, 4: justa petentem deam, Ov. M. 14, 788: ferrum ignemque Jovemque, id. ib. 13, 385 et saep.—Absol.: expectes et sustineas necesse est, Mart. 9, 3, 13: neque jam sustineri poterat, Caes. B. G. 2, 6; cf. Cic. Fam. 12, 6, 4; Liv. 29, 6, 17.

With obj.-clause (mostly with a negative: non sustinet, he cannot bear, cannot endure; he does not take upon himself, does not venture): non sustineo esse conscius mihi dissimulati judicii mei, Quint. 3, 6, 64: non impositos supremis ignibus artus Sustinuit spectare parens, Ov. M. 13, 584; so negatively, id. ib. 1, 530; 6, 367; 6, 606; 9, 439; 10, 47; id. F. 4, 850; Vell. 2, 86, 2.

In a negative interrog.: sustinebant tales viri, se tot senatoribus, etc. ... non credidisse? tantae populi Romani voluntati restitisse? Sustineant. Reperiemus, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 10: hoc quidem quis hominum sustineat petulans esse ad alterius arbitrium? Quint. 12, 9, 10; 3, 6, 64: deserere officii sui partes, Plin. Ep. 9, 13, 16; 9, 13, 6: Parmenionem rursus castigare non sustinebat, Curt. 4, 13, 8; 6, 1, 15: nec solus bibere sustineo, id. 7, 5, 12; 7, 6, 15; 8, 5, 7; Vell. 2, 86, 2; Suet. Caes. 75.—Affirmatively: quem in vinculis habituri erant, sustinuere venerari, Curt. 5, 10, 13: colloqui cum eo, quem damnaverat, sustinuit, id. 6, 8, 16; 7, 5, 38; 10, 5, 25: quae se praeferre Dianae Sustinuit, took upon herself, presumed, Ov. M. 11, 322; so, sustinet ire illuc, id. ib. 4, 447; 6, 563; id. H. 5, 32; Phaedr. 4, 16, 8: aliquem videre, Auct. Cons. Liv. 135: si quis aquam ... haurire sustineat, Plin. 30, 7, 20, § 64: mentiri, Petr. 116.

(Acc. to I. B.) To hold in, stop, stay, check, restrain; to keep back, put off, defer, delay: est igitur prudentis sustinere ut currum sic impetum benevolentiae, Cic. Lael. 17, 63; so, impetum hostis, Caes. B. G. 1, 24; 1, 26; 2, 11; 3, 2 et saep.: subitas hostium incursiones, Hirt. B. G. 8, 11; cf.: Curio praemittit equites, qui primum impetum sustineant ac morentur, Caes. B. C. 2, 26: bellum consilio, Liv. 3, 60, 1: assensus lubricos, Cic. Ac. 2, 34, 108: sustinenda solutio est nominis Caerelliani, id. Att. 12, 51, 3: oppugnationem ad noctem, Caes. B. G. 5, 37, 6: rem in noctem, Liv. 5, 35, 7: iram, id. 2, 19, 4.