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Lewis : umbra

umbra, umbra, ae, f. etym. dub.; Curt. compares Sanscr. ambara, an encircling, a shade, shadow. Lit.: cum usque quaque umbra est, tamen Sol semper hic est, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 79: illa platanus, cujus umbram secutus est Socrates, Cic. de Or. 1, 7, 28: fiebat, ut incideret luna in eam metam, quae esset umbra terrae, etc., id. Rep. 1, 14, 22; cf. id. Div. 2, 6, 17: colles ... afferunt umbram vallibus, id. Rep. 2, 6, 11: nox Involvens umbrā magnā terramque polumque, Verg. A. 2, 251: spissis noctis se condidit umbris, id. ib. 2, 621: majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae, id. E. 1, 84; 5, 70: pampineae, id. ib. 7, 58: certum est mihi, quasi umbra, quoquo ibis tu, te persequi, Plaut. Cas. 1, 4; cf. id. Most. 3, 2, 82.—Prov.: umbras timere, to be afraid of shadows, i. e. to fear without cause, Cic. Att. 15, 20, 4: umbram suam metuere, Q. Cic. Petit. Cons. 2, 9: ipse meas solus, quod nil est, aemulor umbras, Prop. 2, 34 (3, 32), 19.

Transf. In painting, the dark part of a painting, shade, shadow: quam multa vident pictores in umbris et in eminentiā, quae nos non videmus! Cic. Ac. 2, 7, 20; so (opp. lumen) Plin. 35, 5, 11, § 29; 35, 11, 40, § 131; 33, 3, 57, § 163.

A shade, ghost of a dead person (poet. and in post-Aug. prose; cf.: Manes, Lemures): nos ubi decidimus, Quo dives Tullus et Ancus, Pulvis et umbra sumus, Hor. C. 4, 7, 16: ne forte animas Acherunte reamur Effugere aut umbras inter vivos volitare, Lucr. 4, 38; cf.: cornea (porta), quā veris facilis datur exitus umbris, Verg. A. 6, 894; Tib. 3, 2, 9; Verg. A. 5, 734; Hor. C. 2, 13, 30; id. S. 1, 8, 41; Plin. 30, 2, 6, § 18; Suet. Calig. 59 al.: Umbrarum rex, i. e. Pluto, Ov. M. 7, 249; so, dominus, id. ib. 10, 16.

In the plur. umbrae, of a single dead person: matris agitabitur umbris, Ov. M. 9, 410; 8, 476; 6, 541; Verg. A. 6, 510; 10, 519 al.

Like the Greek σκιά, an uninvited guest, whom an invited one brings with him (cf. parasitus), Hor. S. 2, 8, 22; id. Ep. 1, 5, 28; Plaut. Pers. 2, 4, 27; so, of an attendant: luxuriae, Cic. Mur. 6, 13.

A shade, shady place, that which gives a shade or shadow (as a tree, house, tent, etc; poet.); of trees: nudus Arboris Othrys erat nec habebat Pelion umbras, Ov. M. 12, 513; so id. ib. 10, 88; 10, 90; 14, 447; Verg. G. 1, 157, id. E. 9, 20; 5, 5; Sil. 4, 681: Pompeiā spatiabere cultus in umbrā, i. e. in the Pompeian portico, Prop. 4 (5), 8, 75; so, Pompeia, Ov. A. A. 1, 67; 3, 387: vacuā tonsoris in umbrā, in the cool barber's shop, Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 50: studia in umbrā educata, in the closet, study, Tac. A. 14, 53; cf.: rhetorica, i. e. the rhetorician's school, Juv. 7, 173: dum roseis venit umbra genis, i. e. down, beard, Stat. Th. 4, 336; cf.: dubia lanuginis, Claud. Nupt. Pall. et Celer. 42: nunc umbra nudata sua jam tempora moerent, i. e. of hair, Petr. poët. 109: summae cassidis umbra, i. e. the plume or crest, Stat. Th. 6, 226: sed non erat illi Arcus et ex umeris nullae fulgentibus umbrae, i. e. quivers, id. S. 3, 4, 30.

A fish, called also sciaena; a grayling, umber: Salmo thymallus, Linn.; Enn. ap. App. Mag. p. 299 (Heduph. v. 7 Vahl.); Varr. L. L. 5, § 77 Müll.; Ov. Hal. 111; Col. 8, 16, 8; Aus. Idyll. 10, 90.

Trop., like the Engl. shadow or shade. Opp. to substance or reality, a trace, obscure sign or image, faint appearance, imperfect copy or representation, semblance, pretence (cf. simulacrum): veri juris germanaeque justitiae solidam et expressam effigiem nullam tenemus, umbrā et imaginibus utimur, Cic. Off. 3, 17, 69: umbra et imago civitatis, id. Rep. 2, 30, 53: umbra et imago equitis Romani, id. Rab. Post. 15, 41: o hominem amentem et miserum, qui ne umbram quidem umquam τοῦ καλοῦ viderit! id. Att. 7, 11, 1: in quo ipsam luxuriam reperire non potes, in eo te umbram luxuriae reperturum putas? id. Mur. 6, 13: in comoediā maxime claudicamus ... vix levem consequimur umbram, Quint. 10, 1, 100: sub umbrā foederis aequi servitutem pati, Liv. 8, 4, 2: umbras falsae gloriae consectari, Cic. Pis. 24, 57: umbra es amantum magis quam amator, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 31: mendax pietatis umbra, Ov. M. 9, 459: libertatis, Luc. 3, 146: belli, Sil. 15, 316: umbras quasdam veritatis habere, Plin. 30, 2, 6, § 17; Claud. Laud. Stil. 1, 273.

Shelter, cover, protection: umbra et recessus, Cic. de Or. 3, 26, 101: umbrā magni nominis delitescunt, Quint. 12, 10, 15: umbra vestri auxilii tegi possumus, Liv. 7, 30, 18: sub umbrā auxilii vestri latere volunt, id. 32, 21, 31: sub umbrā Romanae amicitiae latebant, id. 34, 9, 10: morum vitia sub umbrā eloquentiae primo latebant, Just. 5, 2, 7.

Rest, leisure: ignavā Veneris cessamus in umbrā, Ov. Am. 2, 18, 3; Albin. Ob. Maec. 98.