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Lewis : vir

vir, vĭr, vĭri (gen. plur. virūm, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 251 P., or Ann. v. 280 Vahl.; id. ap. Fest. p. 257 Müll., or Ann. v. 394 Vahl.; Verg. A. 6, 553 al.), m. Sanscr. vira, hero; the root is in O. H. Germ. weralt; Angl.Sax. veruld; Engl. world, i. e. age or generation of men, a male person, a man (opp. femina; cf. mas). In gen.: virum me natam vellem, Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 9: deque viro factus (mirabile') femina, Ov. M. 3, 326: ambiguus fuerit modo vir, modo femina Sithon, id. ib. 4, 280: mulier conjuncta viro, Lucr. 5, 1012: vir mulierque, Tib. 2, 2, 2: sapientissimorum nostrae civitatis virorum disputatio, Cic. Rep. 1, 8, 13: vir prudens, id. ib. 1, 12, 18: clari viri, id. Fam. 6, 6, 12: vir clarus et honoratus, id. Sen. 7, 22: praestantior, id. ib. 23, 84: bonus et sapiens et legibus parens, id. Fin. 3, 19, 64; cf. id. Off. 3, 15, 64; v. bonus: optimi (opp. homines improbi), id. Cael. 5, 12: fortis, id. Fin. 3, 8, 29; id. Rep. 1, 3, 5: turpissimus, Sall. J. 85, 42: nefandus, Verg. A. 4, 498.

In partic. A man as related to a woman, a husband, maritus (very freq.): is (Juppiter) amare occepit Alcumenam clam virum, Plaut. Am. prol. 107; 111; 134; 1, 3, 4; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 1: quem (vultum) dicitur Xanthippe praedicare solita in viro suo fuisse, Cic. Tusc. 3, 15, 31; id. Verr. 5, 31, 82; id. Cael. 13, 32; id. Fam. 7, 23, 4; Liv. 1, 46, 6; Hor. C. 2, 18, 28; 3, 3, 68; id. S. 1, 2, 127 al.; Ov. M. 1, 146; Petr. 111; Quint. 5, 10, 62; 5, 11, 28; 7, 1, 28; Suet. Aug. 69; id. Calig. 25; id. Claud. 29; id. Ner. 35; id. Dom. 22 al.—Transf., of animals, the male, mate, etc., Verg. E. 7, 7; Ov. M. 1, 660; Mart. 3, 93, 11; Sol. 23.

A man (opp. a boy): pueri hoc possunt, viri non potuerunt? Cic. Tusc. 2, 14, 34: ex toto non sic pueri ut viri curari debent, Cels. 3, 7 fin.: pueroque viroque, Ov. M. 13, 397: neque eos (pueros) prius in urbem redire, quam viri facti essent, statuit, Just. 3, 3, 7: cum essem parvulus ... quando factus sum vir, etc., Vulg. 1 Cor. 13, 11.

Pregn., a man, a man of courage, principle, or honor, one who deserves the name of a man: Marius rusticanus vir, sed plane vir, cum secaretur, vetuit se alligari ... Ita et tulit dolorem, ut vir; et, ut homo, majorem ferre sine causā necessariā noluit, Cic. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; cf. id. Fam. 5, 17, 3: cum is jam se corroboravisset ac vir inter viros esset, id. Cael. 5, 11: te oro, te colligas virumque praebeas, id. Fam. 5, 18, 1: si vir esse volet, praeclara συνοδία, id. Att. 10, 7, 2: tum viro et gubernatore opus est, Liv. 24, 8, 1; 1, 41, 3; 1, 46, 6; 2, 38, 6 et saep.: si quid in Flacco viri est, Non feret, Hor. Epod. 15, 12.

In milit. lang. In gen., like our man, for soldier (syn. miles): dispertiti viri, dispertiti ordines, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 65; cf.: boat Caelum fremitu virum, id. ib. 1, 1, 78: vir unus cum viro congrediendo, T. Manlius, M. Valerius, quantum Gallicam rabiem vinceret Romana virtus, docuerunt, Liv. 38, 17, 8.

In partic., as opposed to the cavalry, a foot-soldier (syn. pedes): equites virique, Liv. 21, 27, 1: magnā voce trahens equitemque virosque, Sil. 9, 559: passim turmaeque virique, etc., Petr. 123.—Hence, prov.: equis viris, or viris equisque, with horse and foot, i. e. with might and main; v. equus.

With emphasis in place of a pronoun of reference, is, ille, etc.: fletusque et conploratio fregere tandem virum, Liv. 2, 40, 9: hae tantae viri virtutes, id. 21, 4, 9; Sall. J. 9, 3.

Distributively, each man, every man: vir virum legit, of choosing a senator, Suet. Aug. 35: vir cum viro congrediaris, Liv. 22, 14, 14: legitque virum vir, singled out (in battle), Verg. A. 11, 632 (an imitation of Hom. Il. 4, 472: ἀνὴρ D) ἄνδῤ ἐδνοπάλιζεν ): cum vir virum legisset, i. e. a companion in battle, Liv. 9, 39, 5; cf., in a sarcastic transfer-: ille (Clodius), qui semper secum scorta, semper exoletos, semper lupas ducebat, tum neminem, nisi ut virum a viro lectum esse diceres, Cic. Mil. 21, 55.

Human beings (poet. homines, opp. pecudes), Ov. M. 1, 286; cf. Verg. A. 6, 553.

Manhood, virility (poet. and very rare): ut relicta sensit sibi membra sine viro, Cat. 63, 6: ferro mollita juventus Atque exsecta virum, Luc. 10, 134.