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Lewis : vis

vis, vīs, vis, f., plur. vīres, ĭum (class. only in nom., acc. and abl. sing. and in plur.; gen. sing. very rare; Tac. Or. 26; Dig. 4, 2, 1; Paul. Sent. 5, 30; dat. sing. vi, Auct. B. Afr. 69, 2; C. I. L. 5, 837; collat. form of the nom. and acc. plur. vis, Lucr. 3, 265; 2, 586; Sall. ap. Prisc. p. 707, or H. 3, 62 Dietsch; Messala ap. Macr. S. 1, 9, 14) [Gr. ἴς, ϝις, sinew, force; ἶφι, with might], strength, physical or mental; force, vigor, power, energy, virtue (cf. robur). Lit. In gen. Sing.: celeritas et vis equorum, Cic. Div. 1, 70, 144: magna vis eorum (urorum) et magna velocitas, Caes. B. G. 6, 28: contra vim atque impetum fluminis, id. ib. 4, 17: tempestatis, id. B. C. 2, 14: venti, Lucr. 1, 271: solis, id. 4, 326 (301): horrida teli, id. 3, 170: acris vini, id. 3, 476: ferri aerisque, id. 5, 1286: veneni, Cic. Cael. 24, 58 et saep.

Plur. (most freq. of physical strength): non viribus aut velocitatibus aut celeritate corporum res magnae geruntur, Cic. Sen. 6, 17: nec nunc vires desidero adulescentis, non plus quam adulescens tauri aut elephanti desiderabam, id. ib. 9, 27: hoc ali vires nervosque confirmari putant, Caes. B. G. 6, 21: me jam sanguis viresque deficiunt, id. ib. 7, 50 fin.: perpauci viribus confisi transnatare contenderunt, id. ib. 1, 53: nostri integris viribus fortiter repugnare, id. ib. 3, 4: lacertis et viribus pugnare, Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 2: omnibus viribus atque opibus repugnare, id. Tusc. 3, 11, 25: non animi solum vigore sed etiam corporis viribus excellens, Liv. 9, 16, 12: validis viribus hastam contorquere, Verg. A. 2, 50: quicquid agas, decet agere pro viribus, with all your might, Cic. Sen. 9, 27; so, supra vires, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 22: et neglecta solent incendia sumere vires, id. ib. 1, 18, 85: seu virium vi seu exercitatione multā cibi vinique capacissimus, Liv. 9, 16, 13; cf.: in proelii concursu abit res a Consilio ad vires vimque pugnantium, Nep. Thras. 1, 4 dub. (Siebel. vires usumque).—Poet., with inf.: nec mihi sunt vires inimicos pellere tectis, Ov. H. 1, 109.

In partic. Energy, virtue, potency (of herbs, drugs, etc.): in radices vires oleae abibunt, Cato, R. R. 61, 1: vires habet herba? Ov. M. 13, 942: egregius fons Viribus occultis adjuvat, Juv. 12, 42.

Vis, personified, the same as Juno, Aus. Idyll. de Deis; cf. Verg. A. 7, 432 Serv.

Hostile strength, force, violence, = βία : EA POENA, QVAE EST DE VI, S. C. ap. Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 3, 5: cum vi vis illata defenditur, Cic. Mil. 4, 9; cf.: celeri rumore dilato Dioni vim allatam, Nep. Dion, 10, 1: ne vim facias ullam in illam, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 37: sine vi facere, id. ib. 4, 7, 20: vim afferre alicui, Cic. Caecin. 21, 61; id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 62; 2, 4, 66, § 148: adhibere, id. Off. 3, 30, 110; id. Cat. 1, 8, 19: praesidio tam valido et armato vim adferre, Liv. 9, 16, 4: iter per vim tentare, by force, forcibly, Caes. B. G. 1, 14; so, per vim, id. B. C. 2, 13; Cic. Att. 7, 9, 4: ne id quidem satis est, nisi docet, ita se possedisse nec vi nec clam nec precario possederit, id. Caecin. 32, 92; so the jurid. formula in Lex Thoria ap. Grut. 202, 18; Dig. 41, 1, 22; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 28: vis haec quidem hercle est, et trahi et trudi simul, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 92; Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 20: naves totae factae ex robore ad quamvis vim et contumeliam perferendam (shortly afterwards: tantas tempestates Oceani tantosque impetus ventorum sustineri), violence, shock, Caes. B. G. 3, 13: caeli, a storm, tempest, Plin. 18, 28, 69, § 278.—To avoid the gen. form (v. supra): de vi condemnati sunt, Cic. Phil. 2, 2, 4: de vi reus; id. Sest. 35, 75; id. Vatin. 17, 41: ei qui de vi itemque ei qui majestatis damnatus sit, id. Phil. 1, 9, 23; cf. id. ib. 1, 9, 21 sq. Halm ad loc.; Tac. A. 4, 13.

In mal. part., force, violence: pudicitiam cum eriperet militi tribunus militaris ... interfectus ab eo est, cui vim adferebat, Cic. Mil. 4, 9: matribus familias vim attulisse, id. Verr. 2, 1, 24, § 62: vis allata sorori, Ov. A. A. 1, 679: victa nitore dei vim passa est, id. M. 4, 233: vim passa est Phoebe, id. A. A. 1, 679.

Transf., concr. Quantity, number, abundance (cf.: copia, multitudo); with gen.: quasi retruderet hominum me vis invitum, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 66: innumerabilis servorum, Cic. Har. Resp. 11, 22: in pompā cum magna vis auri argentique ferretur, Cic. Tusc. 5, 32, 91: vis magna pulveris, Caes. B. C. 2, 26: vis maxima ranunculorum, Cic. Fam. 7, 18, 3: argenti, id. Prov. Cons. 2, 4: vim lacrimarum profudi, id. Rep. 6, 14, 14: odora canum vis, Verg. A. 4, 132; cf. absol.: et nescio quomodo is, qui auctoritatem minimam habet, maximam vim, populus cum illis facit, Cic. Fin. 2, 14, 44.

Vires, military forces, troops: praeesse exercitui, ut praeter auctoritatem vires quoque ad coërcendum haberet, Caes. B. C. 3, 57: satis virium ad certamen, Liv. 3, 60, 4: undique contractis viribus signa cum Papirio conferre, id. 9, 13, 12: robur omne virium ejus regni, the flower, id. 33, 4, 4: concitet et vires Graecia magna suas, Ov. H. 15 (16), 340.

Vires, the virile forces or organs, Arn. 5, 158; 5, 163; Inscr. Orell. 2322; 2332: veluti castratis viribus, Plin. 11, 18, 19, § 60; cf.: vis (= vires) multas possidere in se, Lucr. 2, 586.—Rarely sing.: vis genitalis, Tac. A. 6, 18.

Trop. Mental strength, power, force, vigor: vis illa divina et virtus oratoris, Cic. de Or. 2, 27, 120: vis ac facultas oratoris, id. ib. 1, 31, 142: suavitatem Isocrates ... sonitum Aeschines, vim Demosthenes habuit, id. ib. 3, 7, 28: summa ingenii, id. Phil. 5, 18, 49: magna vis est conscientiae in utramque partem, id. Mil. 23, 61: magna vis est in fortunā in utramque partem, id. Off. 2, 6, 19: patriae, id. de Or. 1, 44, 196: quod ostentum habuit hanc vim, ut, etc., power, effect, id. Div. 1, 33, 73: qui indignitate suā vim ac jus magistratui quem gerebat dempsisset, Liv. 26, 12, 8: hujus conventionis, Dig. 43, 25, 12.—Plur. (post-Aug.): eloquentiae, Quint. 5, 1, 2: facilitatis, id. 12, 9, 20: ingenii, id. 1, 2, 23; 12, 1, 32: orationis, id. 8, 3, 87.

Transf., of abstr. things, force, notion, meaning, sense, import, nature, essence (cf. significatio): id, in quo est omnis vis amicitiae, Cic. Lael. 4, 15: eloquentiae vis et natura, id. Or. 31, 112: vis honesti (with natura), id. Off. 1, 6, 18; cf. id. Fin. 1, 16, 50: virtutis, id. Fam. 9, 16, 5: quae est alia vis legis? id. Dom. 20, 53: vis, natura, genera verborum et simplicium et copulatorum, i.e. the sense, signification, id. Or. 32, 115: vis verbi, id. Inv. 1, 13, 17; id. Balb. 8, 21: quae vis insit in his paucis verbis, si attendes, si attendes, intelleges, id. Fam. 6, 2, 3: quae vis subjecta sit vocibus, id. Fin. 2, 2, 6: nominis, id. Top. 8, 35: μετωνυμία, cujus vis est, pro eo, quod dicitur, causam, propter quam dicitur, ponere, Quint. 8, 6, 23.