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Lewis : voluntas

voluntas, vŏluntas, ātis, f. 1. volo, will, freewill, wish, choice, desire, inclination. Lit. In gen.: simul objecta species cujuspiam est, quod bonum videatur, ad id adipiscendum impellit ipsa natura: id cum constanter prudenterque fit, ejusmodi appetitionem Stoici βούλησιν appellant, nos appellamus voluntatem: eam illi putant in solo esse sapiente, quam sic definiunt: Voluntas est, quae quid cum ratione desiderat: quae autem adversus rationem incitata est vehementius, ea libido est vel cupiditas effrenata, quae in omnibus stultis invenitur, Cic. Tusc. 4, 6, 12; id. Rep. 1, 2, 3: talis est quaeque res publica, qualis ejus aut natura aut voluntas, qui illam regit, id. ib. 1, 31, 47: judicium voluntasque multitudinis, id. ib. 1, 45, 69: mentem voluntatemque suscipere, id. Cat. 3, 9, 22: quid esset suae voluntatis ostendere, Caes. B. C. 3, 109: has patitur poenas peccandi sola voluntas, Juv. 13, 208: sit pro ratione voluntas, id. 6, 223.—Plur.: ut ejus semper voluntatibus non modo cives assenserint, etc., Cic. Imp. Pomp. 16, 48.

Adverbial phrases. Suā (alicujus) voluntate, or simply voluntate, of one's own will, of one's own accord, willingly, voluntarily (cf.: sponte, ultro), Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 2: ut verum esset, suā voluntate sapientem descendere, etc., Cic. Rep. 1, 6, 11: suā voluntate, nullā vi coactus, id. Fin. 2, 20, 65: dictus filius tuos vostrā voluntate, Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 2: tu coactus es tuā voluntate, id. And. 4, 1, 33: istuc, quod expetis, meā voluntate concedam, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 9, 27: reditus in patriam voluntate omnium concedi videretur, id. Fam. 13, 5, 2.—Alone: nisi voluntate ibis, rapiam te domum, Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 40: quod jus vos cogit, id voluntate impetret, Ter. Ad. 3, 4, 44: aequius erat id voluntate fieri, Cic. Off. 1, 9, 28: aliae civitates voluntate in ditionem venerunt, Liv. 29, 38, 1.

Ad voluntatem, de, ex voluntate, according to the will, with the consent, at the desire of any one: ad voluntatem loqui, at the will of another, Cic. Quint. 30, 93; id. Par. 5, 2, 39: vultus et sermo ad aliorum sensum et voluntatem commutandus, Q. Cic. Petit. Cons. 11, 42: vix tamen sibi de meā voluntate concessum est, id. Att. 4, 2, 4: illud accidit praeter optatum meum, sed valde ex voluntate, id. Pis. 20, 46: ex Caesaris voluntate, id. Fam. 13, 29, 7; cf.: praeter legem et sui voluntatem patris studeat, etc., Ter. And. 5, 3, 9.

In partic. Disposition towards a person or thing, good or bad: erratis, si senatum probare ea ... putatis, populum autem esse in aliā voluntate, Cic. Agr. 1, 9, 27: offensā in eum militum voluntate, Nep. Dion, 8, 3: celans, quā voluntate esset in regem, id. Dat. 5, 5: legati, qui de ejus voluntate explorarent, id. Hann. 2, 2.—And with bona: neque bonae voluntatis ullum signum erga nos tyranni habemus, Liv. 38, 14, 7: quid nunc mihi prodest bona voluntas, Sen. Ben. 4, 21, 6; 5, 3, 2; 5, 4, 1; id. Ep. 81, 8: non nudum cum bonā voluntate, sed cum facultatibus accedere ad patriae auxilium, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 8, 2.

More freq. voluntas alone = bona voluntas, good-will, favor, affection (syn. benignitas): voluntas erga Caesarem, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, § 20; Caes. B. C. 2, 17: summa in se (with summum studium), id. B. G. 1, 19: mutua, Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 1: aliena a te, id. Lig. 2, 6: voluntas vestra si ad poëtam accesserit, Ter. Phorm. prol. 29: singularis voluntas Campanae vicinitatis, Cic. Rab. Perd. 3, 8: mansisset eadem voluntas in eorum posteris, etc., id. Rep. 1, 41, 64.

A last will, testament: defensio testamentorum ac voluntatis mortuorum, Cic. de Or. 1, 57, 242; Plin. Ep. 2, 16, 2; 4, 10, 3; 5, 7, 2; Tac. H. 1, 48; Amm. 21, 15, 5; 28, 1, 35; 28, 4, 22; called also ultima, Dig. 35, 1, 6; cf.: per testamentum aut per aliam quamlibet ultimam voluntatem, other expression of his will, Just. Inst. 1, 5, 1.

An object, purpose: cum sint in dicendo variae voluntates, Cic. Brut. 21, 83; cf.: quantam voluntatem habent ad hunc opprimendum, id. Font. 18, 40 (14, 30).

Transf. (acc. to 1. volo, I. E. 4. b.), of speech, meaning, sense, signification, import (only post-Aug.; esp. freq. in Quint.; syn. vis): verbis legum standum sit an voluntate, Quint. 7, 10, 6; so (opp. verba) id. 7, 1, 49; 7, 5, 4; cf.: quaestio juris omnis aut verborum proprietate aut voluntatis conjectura continetur, id. 12, 2, 19; 6, 2, 9: verborum vi aut voluntate, id. 8, praef. 10: legis, id. 3, 6, 99: nominis, id. 7, 10, 1.