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Lewis : beneficium

beneficium bĕnĕfĭcĭum (better than bĕnĭfĭcĭ-um), ii, n. beneficus. A benefaction, kindness, favor, benefit, service, εὐεργέτημα (sunt qui ita distinguunt, quaedam beneficia esse, quaedam officia, quaedam ministeria. Beneficium esse, quod alienus det: alienus est, qui potuit sine reprehensione cessare: officium esse filii, uxoris et earum personarum, quas necessitudo suscitat et ferre opem jubet: ministerium esse servi, quem condicio sua eo loco posuit, ut nihil eorum, quae praestat, imputet superiori, Sen. Ben.3, 18, 1);—(in prose freq.; in poetry, for metrical reasons, only in play-writers; most freq. in Ter.). In gen.: nullum beneficium esse duco id, quod, quoi facias, non placet, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 12: beneficium accipere, Ter. Ad. 2, 3, 1: pro maleficio beneficium reddere, id. Phorm. 2, 2, 22: immemor beneficii, id. And. 1, 1, 17: cupio aliquos parere amicos beneficio meo, id. Eun. 1, 2, 69: beneficium verbis initum re comprobare, id. And. 5, 1, 5: nec enim si tuam ob causam cuiquam commodes, beneficium illud habendum est, sed feneratio, Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117; id. Off. 2. 20, 70: beneficio adligari: beneficio victus esse, Cic. Planc. 33, 81; cf.: Jugurtham beneficiis vincere, Sall. J. 9, 3: collocare, Cic. Off. 1, 15, 49 al.; 2, 20, 69: dare, id. ib. 1, 15, 48; id. Fam. 13, 8, 3' deferre, id. Off. 1, 15, 49: conferre in aliquem, id. ib. 1, 14, 45: quia magna mihi debebat beneficia, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 12, 1: in republicā multo praestat benefici quam malefici immemorem esse, Sall. J. 31, 28: senatus et populus Romanus benefici et injuriae memor esse solet, id. ib. 104, 5; Petr. 126, 4: in iis (hominibus) beneficio ac maleficio abstineri aecum censent, Liv. 5, 3, 8: immortali memoriā retinere beneficia, Nep. Att. 11, 5 al.—Of the favor of the people in giving their vote: quidquid hoc beneficio populi Romani atque hac potestate praetoriā possum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 69, and 71.

Esp. Beneficio, through favor, by the help, aid, support, mediation: beneficio tuo salvus, thanks to you, Cic. Fam. 11, 22, 1; 13, 35, 1: nostri consulatūs beneficio, by means of, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 1, § 6: servari beneficio Caesaris, Vell. 2, 71, 1: hoc beneficio, by this means, Ter. Heaut. 2, 4, 14: sortium beneficio, by the lucky turn of, Caes. B. G. 1, 53 Herz.: longissimae aetatis, Quint. 3, 1, 9: ingenii, id. 2, 11, 2; 5, 10, 121: eloquentiae, Tac. Or. 8 al.; cf.: fortunae beneficium, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 4, 2.

In gen., by the agency of: quod beneficio ejus contingit, Dig. 39, 2, 40, § 1: beneficio furis, ib. 47, 2, 46 pr.

Alicujus beneficii facere (habere, etc.), to make dependent on one's bounty or favor (post-Aug.): commeatus a senatu peti solitos benefici sui fecit, Suet. Claud. 23: ut munus imperii beneficii sui faceret, Just. 13, 4, 9; cf.: adeo quidem dominis servi beneficia possunt dare, ut ipsos saepe beneficii sui fecerint, Sen. Ben. 3, 18, 4: sed nihil habebimus nisi beneficii alieni? Quint. 10, 4, 6.

Transf. to political life. A distinction, support, favor, promotion (esp. freq. after the Aug. per.): coöptatio collegiorum ad populi beneficium transferebatur, Cic. Lael. 25, 96; id. Phil. 2, 36, 91: quibus omnia populi Romani beneficia dormientibus deferuntur, id. Verr. 2, 5, 70, § 180: in beneficiis ad aerarium delatus, among those recommended to favor, id. Arch. 5, 11 Halm. ad loc.; id. Fam. 7, 5, 3: cum suo magno beneficio esset, under great obligation to his recommendation, id. Phil. 8, 6 Wernsd.; Flor. 4, 2, 92; cf. Suet. Tit. 8.—So, Esp. freq. of military promotions (whence beneficiarius, q. v.): quod scribis de beneficiis, scito a me et tribunos militaris et praefectos... delatos esse, Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 7: ut tribuni militum... quae antea dictatorum et consulum ferme fuerant beneficia, Liv. 9, 30, 3: beneficia gratuita esse populi Romani, id. 45, 42, 11; Hirt. B. Afr. 54, 5: per beneficia Nymphidii, promoted, advanced through the favor of Nymphidius, Tac. H. 1, 25; 4, 48 Lips.: beneficii sui centuriones, i. e. his creatures, Suet. Tib. 12: Liber beneficiorum or Beneficium, the book in which the public lands that were bestowed were designated, Hyg. Limit. Const. p. 193 Goes.; Arcad. ib. p. 260.—So, SERVVS. A. COMMENTARIIS. BENEFICIORVM., Inscr. Grut. 578, 1.

A privilege, right (post-Aug.): anulorum, Dig. 48, 7, 42: religionis, ib. 3, 3, 18: militaris, ib. 29, 1, 3.—Hence, liberorum, a release from the office of judge, received in consequence of having a certain number of children, Suet. Claud. 15; Dig. 49, 8, 1, § 2.

Personified, as a god: duos omnino (deos credere), Poenam et Beneficium, Plin. 2, 7, 5, § 14.