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bonus bŏnus (old form dŭonus, Carm. Sall. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 26 Müll.; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 67 Müll.), a, um, adj. for duonus, cf. bellum, bis, and cf. root dvi-; hence δείδω, δέος, good; comp. melior, us cf. Gr. μάλα, μᾶλλον, better; sup. optimus (optu-mus, ante-class. and often class.) [root opof ops, opes; cf. copia, apiscor], best. Attributively. As adjunct of nouns denoting persons. Vir bonus. A man morally good ( καλὸς κἀγαθός ): quoniam boni me viri pauperant, improbi alunt, Plaut. Poen. 5, 4, 60: omnibus virtutibus instructos et ornatos tum sapientes, tum viros bonos dicimus, Cic. Tusc. 5, 10, 28: ille vir bonus qui... intolerabili dolore lacerari potius quam aut officium prodat aut fidem, id. Ac. 2, 8, 23: sive vir bonus est is qui prodest quibus potest, nocet nemini, certe istum virum bonum non facile reperimus, id. Off. 3, 15, 64: qui se ita gerunt ut eorum probitas, fides, integritas, etc. ... hos viros bonos... appellandos putemus, id. Lael. 5, 19: non intellegunt se de callido homine loqui, non de bono viro, id. Att. 7, 2, 4: ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 4, § 12: nec enim melior vir fuit Africano quisquam, nec clarior, id. Lael. 2, 6; id. Leg. 1, 14, 41; 1, 18, 48; id. Planc. 4, 9; id. Par. 3, 1, 21; id. Marcell. 6, 20; id. Fam. 7, 21; id. Off. 2, 16, 57.

An honest man: justitia, ex quā viri boni nominantur, Cic. Off. 1, 7, 21; 1, 44, 155; 2, 11, 39; 2, 12, 42; 2, 20, 71; 3, 12, 50: cum is sponsionem fecisset ni vir bonus esset, id. ib. 3, 19, 77: quoniam Demosthenes nec vir bonus esset, nec bene meritus de civitate, id. Opt. Gen. 7, 20; cf. id. Rosc. Am. 40, 116.

A man of good standing in the community: id viri boni arbitratu deducetur, Cato, R. R. 143; so id. ib. 149: tuam partem viri bono arbitratu... dari oportet, Dig. 17, 1, 35; 37, 6, 2, § 2: quem voles virum bonum nominato, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 25, § 55: vir bonus est... quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenentur, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 40.—Hence, ironically of wealthy men: praetores jus dicunt, aediles ludos parant, viri boni usuras perscribunt, Cic. Att. 9, 12, 3.

Ironically of bad men: sed eccum lenonem Lycum, bonum virum, Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 52; Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 9; 4, 3, 18; id. Ad. 3, 4, 30: expectabam quinam isti viri boni testes hujus manifesto deprehensi veneni dicerentur, Cic. Cael. 26, 63: nam socer ejus, vir multum bonus est, id. Agr. 3, 3, 13; so especially in addresses (mostly comic.): age tu, illuc procede, bone vir! Plaut. Capt. 5, 2, 1; id. Curc. 5, 2, 12; id. Ps. 4, 7, 48; id. Pers. 5, 2, 11; Ter. And. 3, 5, 10; 5, 2, 5; id. Ad. 4, 2, 17; id. Eun. 5, 2, 11: quid tu, vir optime? Ecquid habes quod dicas? Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 104.—( ε ) Sometimes boni viri = boni, in the sense of optimates (v. I. A. 3.): bonis viris quid juris reliquit tribunatus C. Gracchi? Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20.

( ζ ) As a conventional courtesy: homines optimi non intellegunt, etc., Cic. Fin. 1, 7, 25: bone accusator, id. Rosc. Am. 21, 58: sic illum amicum vocasti, quomodo omnes candidatos bonos viros dicimus, gentlemen, Sen. Ep. 3, 1.—For bonus vir, a good husband, v. 3.; and for vir optimus, as a laudatory epithet, v. 5.

Boni homines (rare) = boni, better classes of society, v. II. A. 3: in foro infimo boni homines atque dites ambulant, Plaut. Curc. 4, 1, 14.

With nouns denoting persons in regard to their functions, offices, occupations, and qualities, denoting excellence: bonus consul, Liv. 4, 40, 6; 22, 39, 2 (different: consules duos, bonos quidem, sed dumtaxat bonos, amisimus, consuls of good sentiments, almost = bad consuls, Cic. ad Brut. 1, 3, 4): boni tribuni plebis, Cic. Phil. 1, 10, 25: bonus senator, id. Prov. Cons. 15, 37: senator bonus, id. Dom. 4, 8: bonus judex, id. Verr. 2, 4, 15, § 34: bonus augur (ironically), id. Phil. 2, 32, 80: bonus vates, Plaut. Mil. 3, 3, 27: bonus imperator, Sall. C. 60, 4: bonus dux, Quint. 12, 1, 43 (cf. trop.: naturam, optimam ducem, the best guide, Cic. Sen. 2, 5): bonus miles, Sall. C. 60, 4; Sen. Vit. Beat. 15, 5: bonus orator, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: optimus orator, id. Opt. Gen. 1, 3: poëta bonus, id. de Or. 1, 3, 11; 2, 46, 194; id. Fin. 1, 3, 10: scriptor bonus, Quint. 10, 1, 104: bonus advocatus, id. 5, 13, 10: bonus defensor, id. 5, 13, 3: bonus altercator, a good debater, id. 6, 4, 10: bonus praeceptor, id. 5, 13, 44; 10, 5, 22: bonus gubernator, Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 100: optimus opifex, Hor. S. 1, 3, 133: sutor bonus, id. ib. 1, 3, 125: actor optimus, Cic. Sest. 57, 122: cantor optimus est modulator, Hor. S. 1, 3, 130: melior gladiator, Ov. Tr. 4, 6, 33: agricola (colonus, dominus) bonus, Cato, R. R. prooem.; Cic. Sen. 16, 56: bonus paterfamilias, a thrifty head of the house, Nep. Att. 13, 1: bonus servus, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 58; id. Am. 2, 1, 46; id. Men. 5, 6, 1; Cic. Mil. 22, 58: dominus bonus, Cato, R. R. 14: bonus custos, Plaut. Truc. 4, 3, 38.—Ironically, Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 57: filius bonus, Plaut. Am. 3, 4, 9: patres, Quint. 11, 3, 178: parens, id. 6, prooem. 4: bonus (melior, optimus), viz. a good husband, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 51 sq.; Liv. 1, 9, 15: uxor melior, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: amicus, id. Fam. 2, 15, 3: amicus optimus, Plaut. Cas. 3, 3, 18: optimus testis, Cic. Fam. 7, 27, 2: auctor, in two senses, good authority, id. Att. 5, 12, 3; and = bonus scriptor (post-class.), Quint. 10, 1, 74.—Esp.: bonus civis (rarely civis bonus): in re publicā ea velle quae tranquilla et honesta sint: talem enim solemus et sentire bonum civem et dicere, Cic.-Off. 1, 34, 124: eaque est summa ratio et sapientia boni civis, commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eādem continere, id. ib. 2, 23, 83: eum esse civem et fidelem et bonum, Plaut. Pers. 1, 2, 15; Cic. Fam. 2, 8, 2; 1, 9, 10; 3, 12, 1; 6, 6, 11; id. Off. 1, 44, 155; Liv. 22, 39, 3; Sall. H. Fragm. 1, 10 Dietsch: optimus et fortissimus civis, Cic. Fam. 12, 2, 3; id. Sest. 17, 39.

Bonus and optimus as epithets of the gods. In gen.: sed te bonus Mercurius perdat, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 23: fata... bonique divi, Hor. C. 4, 2, 38: divis orte bonis, id. ib. 4, 5, 1: O bone deus! Scrib. Comp. 84 fin.: BONORVM DEORVM, Inscr. ap. Cic. N. D. 3, 34, 84: totidem, pater optime, dixi, Tu mihi da cives, referring to Jupiter, Ov. M. 7, 627.

Optimus Maximus, a standing epithet of Jupiter: (Juppiter) a majoribus nostris Optimus Maximus (nominatur), et quidem ante optimus, id est beneficentissimus, quam Maximus, Cic. N. D. 2, 25, 64: Jovem optimum et maximum ob eas res appellant, non quod, etc., id. ib. 3, 36, 87: in templo Jovis Optimi Maximi, id. Sest. 56, 129; id. Prov. Cons. 9, 22: nutu Jovis Optimi Maximi, id. Cat. 3, 9, 21; Liv. 1, 12, 7; id. 6, 16, 2.

Di boni, O di boni, expressing indignation, sorrow, or surprise: di boni, hunc visitavi antidhac! Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 16: di boni, boni quid porto! Ter. And. 2, 2, 1: di boni, quid hoc morbi est, id. Eun. 2, 1, 19; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 13; id. Ad. 3, 3, 86: alter, O di boni, quam taeter incedebat! Cic. Sest. 8, 19; id. Brut. 84, 288; id. Phil. 2, 8, 20; 2, 32, 80; id. Att. 1, 16, 5; 14, 21, 2; Val. Max. 3, 5, 1; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3.

Bona Dea, etc., v. 6.

Optimus as a laudatory epithet. Vir optimus: per vos nobis, per optimos viros optimis civibus periculum inferre conantur, Cic. Sest. 1, 2: virum optimum et constantissimum M. Cispium, id. ib. 35, 76: fratrem meum, virum optimum, fortissimum, id. ib.: consolabor hos praesentes, viros optimos, id. Balb. 19, 44; id. Planc. 21, 51; 23, 55; id. Mil. 14, 38; id. Marcell. 4, 10; id. Att. 5, 1, 5; Hor. S. 1, 6, 53.

Femina bona, optima: tua conjunx bona femina, Cic. Phil. 3, 6, 16: hujus sanctissimae feminae atque optimae pater, id. ib.

Senex, pater, frater, etc.: optimus: parentes ejus, prudentissimi atque optimi senis, Cic. Planc. 41, 97: insuevit pater optimus hoc me, Hor. S. 1, 4, 105; 2, 1, 12: C. Marcelli, fratris optimi, Cic. Fam. 4, 7, 6; id. Q. Fr. 2, 6 (8), 2; 2, 4, 2.

With proper names (poet.): optimus Vergilius, Hor. S. 1, 6, 54: Maecenas optimus, id. ib. 1, 5, 27: optime Quinti, id. Ep. 1, 16, 1.—( ε ) Esp. as an epithet of the Roman emperors: quid tam civile, tam senatorium quam illud, additum a nobis Optimi cognomen? Plin. Pan. 2, 7: gratias, inquit, ago, optime Princeps! Sen. Tranq. 14. 4: ex epistulā optimi imperatoris Antonini, Gai. Inst. 1, 102; cf.: bene te patriae pater optime Caesar, Ov. F. 2, 637: optime Romulae Custos gentis, Hor. C. 4, 5, 1.

Bonus and Bona, names of deities. Bona Dea, the goddess of Chastity, whose temple could not be entered by males (cf. Macr. S. 1, 12; Lact. 1, 22): Bonae Deae pulvinaribus, Cic. Pis. 39, 95; id. Mil. 31, 86; id. Fam. 1, 9, 15; cf. in mal. part., Juv. 2, 86 sq.; 6, 314 sq.; 6, 335 sq.

Bonus Eventus, Varr. R. R. 1, 1 med.; Amm. 29, 6, 19; Inscr. Orell. 907; 1780 sq.

Bona Fortuna: si bona Fortuna veniat, ne intromiseris, Plaut. Aul. 1, 3, 22: Bonae Fortunae (signum), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3, § 7: FORTVNAE BONAE DOMESTICAE, Inscr. Orell. 1743 sq.

Bona Spes: Spes Bona, obsecro, subventa mihi, Plaut. Rud. 1, 4, 12: BONAE SPEI, Aug. Inscr. Grut. 1075, 1.—( ε ) BONA MENS, Inscr. Orell. 1818 sqq.: Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in sacraria dono, Prop. 3, 24, 19. With nouns denoting things. Things concrete, denoting excellence: navis bona dicitur non quae pretiosis coloribus picta est... sed stabilis et firma, Sen. Ep. 76, 13: gladium bonum dices, non cui auratus est balteus, etc., sed cui et ad secandum subtilis acies est, et, etc., id. ib. 76, 14: id vinum erit lene et bono colore, Cato, R. R. 109; Lucr. 2, 418; Ov. Am. 2, 7, 9: tabulas... collocare in bono lumine, Cic. Brut. 75, 261: ex quāvis oleā oleum ... bonum fieri potest. Cato, R. R. 3: per aestatem boves aquam bonam et liquidam bibant semper curato, id. ib. 73; cf.: bonae aquae, ironically compared to wine, Prop. 2, 33 (3, 31), 28: praedium bonum caelum habeat, good temperature, Cato, R. R. 1: bonā tempestate, in good weather, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 4: (praedium) solo bono valeat, by good soil, Cato, R. R. 1: bonae (aedes) cum curantur male, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 24: villam bonam, Cic. Off. 3, 13, 55: bonus pons, Cat. 17, 5: scyphi optimi (= optime facti), Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 14, § 32: perbona toreumata, id. ib. 2, 4, 18, § 38: bona domicilia, comfortable residences, id. N. D. 2, 37, 95: agrum Meliorem nemo habet, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 12: fundum meliorem, Cic. Inv. 1, 31, 52: fundos optimos et fructuosissimos, id. Agr. 3, 4, 14: equus melior, id. Inv. 1, 31, 52: bona cena, Cat. 13, 3: boni nummi, good, not counterfeit, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 144; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 91: super omnia vultus accessere boni, good looks, Ov. M. 8, 678: mulier bonā formā, of a fine form, Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 13: equus formae melioris, Hor. S. 2, 7, 52: tam bona cervix, simul ac jussero, demetur, fine, beautiful, Suet. Calig. 33: fruges bonae, Cat. 34, 19: ova suci melioris, of better flavor, Hor. S. 2, 4, 13.

Trop.: animus aequus optimum est aerumnae condimentum, Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 71: bona dextra, a lucky hand (cf.: bonum omen, 2. e.), Quint. 6, 3, 69: scio te bonā esse voce, ne clama nimis, good, sound, loud voice, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 43; so, bona firmaque vox, Quint. 11, 3, 13.

Things abstract. Of physical well-being: ut si qui neget sine bonā valetudine posse bene vivi, Cic. Inv. 1, 51, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 2; Lucr. 3, 102; Val. Max. 2, 5, 6; Quint. 10, 3, 26; 11, 2, 35 et saep.: non bonus somnus de prandio est, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 8: bona aetas, prime of life, Cic. Sen. 14, 48: optimā aetate, id. Fam. 10, 3, 3.—Ironically: bonā, inquis, aetate, etc., Sen. Ep. 76, 1.

Of the mind and soul: meliore esse sensu, Cic. Sest. 21, 47: optima indoles, id. Fin. 5, 22, 61: bona conscientia, Quint. 6, 1, 33; 9, 2, 93; Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 5: bono ingenio me esse ornatam quam auro multo mavolo, with a good heart, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 91; id. Stich. 1, 21, 59; Sall. C. 10, 5: mens melior, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 78; Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13; Liv. 39, 16, 5; Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 4; id. Ep. 10, 4; Pers. 2, 8; Petr. 61.—Personified, Prop. 3 (4), 24, 19; Ov. Am. 1, 2, 31: duos optimae indolis filios, Val. Max. 5, 7, 2; Sen. Ben. 6, 16, 6; Quint. 1, 2, 5: bonum consilium, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 6; id. Rud. 4, 3, 18; Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121: bona voluntas, a good purpose, Quint. 12, 11, 31: memoria bona, Cic. Att. 8, 4, 2: bona ratio cum perditā... confligit, id. Cat. 2, 11, 25: bonae rationes, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 50: pronuntiatio bona, Auct. Her. 3, 15, 27.

Of moral relations: ego si bonam famam mihi servasso, sat ero dives, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 71; Cic. Sest. 66, 139; Liv. 6, 11, 7; Hor. S. 1, 2, 61 (cf. Cic. Att. 7, 26, 1; v. e. infra): si ego in causā tam bonā cessi tribuni plebis furori, Cic. Sest. 16, 36; id. Planc. 36, 87; Ov. M. 5, 220: fac, sis, bonae frugi sies, of good, regular habits, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 35; id. Cas. 2, 4, 5; 2, 5, 19; id. Ps. 1, 5, 53; id. Truc. 1, 1, 13; id. Capt. 5, 2, 3 sq. (v. frux, II. B. 1. β .): vilicus disciplinā bonā utatur. Cato, R. R. 5: bona studia, moral pursuits, Auct. Her. 4, 17, 25: quidquid vitā meliore parasti, Hor. S. 2, 3, 15: ad spem mortis melioris, an honorable death; so as an epithet of religious exercises: Juppiter, te bonas preces precor, Cato, R. R. 134; 139.

Of external, artistic, and literary value and usefulness: bono usui estis nulli, Plaut. Curc. 4, 2, 15: Optumo optume optumam operam das, id. Am. 1, 1, 122: bonam dedistis mihi operam, a valuable service to me, id. Poen. 2, 3, 70; 3, 6, 11; id. Pers. 4, 7, 11; id. Rud. 3, 6, 11 (in a different sense: me bonā operā aut malā Tibi inventurum esse auxilium argentarium, by fair or unfair means, id. Ps. 1, 1, 102; v. e. infra): optima hereditas a patribus traditur liberis... gloria virtutis rerumque gestarum, Cic. Off. 1, 33, 121: bonum otium, valuable leisure, Sall. C. 4, 1: bonis versibus, Cic. Ac. 2, 23, 74: versus meliores, Plaut. Trin. 3, 2, 81: meliora poemata, Hor. A. P. 303: in illā pro Ctesiphonte oratione longe optimā, Cic. Or. 8, 26: optimas fabulas, id. Off. 1, 31, 114: melius munus, id. Ac. 1, 2, 7.

Favorable, prosperous, lucky, fortunate: de Procilio rumores non boni, unfavorable rumors, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 5: bona de Domitio, praeclara de Afranio fama est, about their success in the war, id. ib. 7, 26, 1: si fuisset in discipulo comparando meliore fortunā, id. Pis. 29, 71; cf. fortunā optimā esse, to be in the best pecuniary circumstances, id. ad Brut. 1, 1, 2: occasio tam bona, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 9: senex est eo meliore condicione quam adulesoens cum, etc., Cic. Sen. 19, 68; id. Fam. 4, 32: bona navigatio, id. N. D. 3, 34, 83; esp. in phrase bona spes.—Object.: ergo in iis adulescentibus bonam spem esse dicemus et magnam indolem quos, etc., Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117.—Subject.: ego sum spe bonā, Cic. Fam. 12, 28, 3; id. Cat. 2, 11, 25; id. Att. 14, 1 a, 3; id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 16: optimā spe, id. Fam. 12, 11, 2.—Pregn., = spes bonarum rerum, Sall. C. 21, 1; v. C. 1. c. infra: meliora responsa, more favorable, Liv. 7, 21, 6: melior interpretatio, Tac. H. 3, 65: cum laude et bonis recordationibus, id. A. 4, 38: amnis Doctus iter melius, i. e. less injurious, Hor. A. P. 68: omen bonum, a good, lucky omen, Cic. Pis. 13, 31; cf. Liv. praef. § 13: melius omen, Ov. F. 1, 221; optimum, Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 2: bona scaeva, Plaut. Stich. 5, 2, 24: auspicio optumo, id. ib. 3, 2, 6; cf.: memini bene, sed meliore Tempore dicam = opportuniore tempore, Hor. S. 1, 9, 68.

Of public affairs, si mihi bonā re publicā frui non licuerit, Cic. Mil. 34, 93: optima res publica, id. Or. 1, 1, 1; id. Phil. 1, 8, 19: minus bonis temporibus, id. Dom. 4, 8; so, optimis temporibus, id. Sest. 3, 6: nostrae res meliore loco videbantur, id. ad Brut. 1, 3, 1: lex optima, id. Pis. 16, 37; id. Sest. 64, 137; id. Phil, 1, 8, 19.

Good = large, considerable: bono atque amplo lucro, Plaut. Am. prol. 6: bona librorum copia, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 109; cf.: bona copia cornu, Ov. M. 9, 88; v. bona pars, C. 8. γ .

Noble; with genus, good family, noble extraction, honorable birth: quali me arbitraris genere prognatum? Eu. Bono, Plaut. Aul. 2, 2, 35; so id. Ep. 1, 2, 4; 2, 1, 3; id. Pers. 4, 4, 94: si bono genere natus sit, Auct. Her. 3, 7, 13.

Referring to good-will, kindness, faithfulness, in certain phrases. Bonā veniā or cum bonā veniā, with the kind permission of a person addressed, especially bonā veniā orare, expetere, etc.: primum abs te hoc bonā veniā expeto, Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 31: bonā tuā veniā dixerim, Cic. Leg. 3, 15, 34: orāvit bonā veniā Quirites, ne, etc., Liv. 7, 41, 3: obsecro vos.. bonā veniā vestrā liceat, etc., id. 6, 40, 10: cum bonā veniā quaeso audiatis, etc., id. 29, 17, 6; Arn. c. Gent. 1, p. 5; cf.. sed des veniam bonus oro = veniā bonā oro, Hor. S. 2, 4, 5.

Bona pax, without quarrelling: bona pax sit potius, let us have no quarrel about that, Plaut. Pers. 2, 2, 7; so especially cum bonā pace, or bonā pace: Hannibal ad Alpis cum bonā pace incolentium... pervenit, without a difficulty with the inhabitants, Liv. 21, 32, 6; 21, 24, 5; 1, 24, 3; 28, 37, 4; 8, 15, 1; cf.: si bonam (pacem) dederitis, = a fair peace, under acceptable conditions, id. 8, 21, 4.

Amicitia bona = bonā fide servata, faithful, undisturbed friendship: igitur amicitia Masinissae bona atque honesta nobis permansit, Sall. J. 5, 5.

Bona societas, alliance: Segestes, memoriā bonae societatis, impavidus, Tac. A. 1, 58. In particular phrases. Bonae res. = Vitae commoda, comforts of life, abstract or concrete: concedatur bonis rebus homines morte privari, Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 87: optimis rebus usus est, he had every most desirable thing, Nep. Att. 18, 1.

= Res secundae, opp. res adversae, prosperity: bonis rebus tuis, meas irrides malas, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 45: in bonis rebus, Hor. C. 2, 3, 2.

Res bona = res familiaris bona, wealth (poet.): in re bonā esse, Laber. ap. Gell. 10, 17, 4.—Also an object of value: homines quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque res neque spes bona ulla, who had no property, nor the hope of any, Sall. C. 21, 1.

Costly things, articles of luxury: capere urbem in Arabiā plenam bonarum rerum, Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 46; 4, 4, 82: nimium rei bonae, id. Stich. 2, 3, 55: ignorantia bonarum rerum, Nep. Ages. 8, 5' bonis rebus gaudere, Hor. S. 2, 6, 110: re bonā copiosum esse, Gell. 16, 19, 7.

Moral, morally good: illi cum res non bonas tractent, Cic. Ac. 2, 33, 72: ut de virtutibus et vitiis, omninoque de bonis rebus et malis quaererent, id. ib. 1, 4, 15: quid habemus in rebus bonis et malis explorati? id. ib. 2, 42, 129; so id. Or. 1, 10, 42; id. Leg. 1, 22, 58: quae tamen omnia dulciora fuint et moribus bonis et artibus, id. Sen. 18, 65.

In literary composition, important or interesting matter, subjects, or questions: res bonas verbis electis dictas quis non legat? Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 8: studiis generorum, praesertim in re bonā, Plaut. Am. 8, 26.

Bonae artes. A good, laudable way of dealing: qui praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit, Sall. C. 2, 9: huic bonae artes desunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit, id. ib. 11, 2: quod is bonarum artium cupiens erat, Tac. A. 6, 46.

Liberal arts and sciences: litteris aut ulli bonae arti, Quint. 12, 1, 7: conservate civem bonarum artium, bonarum partium, bonorum virorum, Cic. Sest. 32, 77. —Esp.: optimae artes: optimarum artium scientia, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 4; id. Ac. 2, 1, 1; id. Cael. 10, 24; id. Marcell. 1, 4.

Bona fides, or fides bona. Good faith, i. e. conscious honesty in acts or words: qui nummos fide bonā solvit, who pays (the price of labor) in good faith, i. e. as it is honestly earned, Cato, R. R. 14: dic, bonā fide, tu id aurum non subripuisti? Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 46; 4, 10, 47; id. Capt. 4, 2, 111; id. Most. 3, 1, 137; id. Poen. 1, 3, 30; id. Pers. 4, 3, 16; id. Ps. 4, 6, 33: si tibi optimā fide omnia concessit, Cic. Rosc. Am. 49, 144; Quint. 10, 3, 23.—Hence, bonae fidei vir, a conscientious man, Quint. 10, 7, 1.

Jurid. t. t. Good faith in contracts and legal acts in general, opposed to dolus malus, honesty and fairness in dealing with another: ad fidem bonam statuit pertinere, notum esse emptori vitium quod nosset venditor, Cic. Off. 3, 16, 67.—Hence, alienam rem bonā fide emere, to buy, believing the seller to be the rightful owner, Dig. 41, 3, 10; 41, 3, 13, § 1. bonae fidei possessor (also possessio), believing that he is the rightful owner, ib. 5, 3, 25, § 11; 5, 3, 22; 41, 3, 15, § 2; 41, 3, 24: conventio contra bonam fidem et mores bonos, ib. 16, 31, § 7: bonam fidem praestare, to be responsible for one's good faith, ib. 17, 1, 10 prooem.—Hence, Bonae fidei actiones or judicia, actions in equity, i. e. certain classes of actions in which the strict civil law was set aside by the prætorian edict in favor of equity: actiones quaedam bonae fidei sunt, quaedam stricti juris. Bonae fidei sunt haec: exempto vendito, locato conducto, etc., Just. Inst. 4, 6, 28, § 19.—In the republican time the prætor added in such actions to his formula for the judex the words ex fide bonā, or, in full: quidquid dare facere oportet ex fide bonā, Cic. Off. 3, 16, 66: iste dolus malus et legibus erat vindicatus, et sine lege, judiciis in quibus additur ex fide bonā, id. ib. 3, 15, 61; cf. id. ib. 3, 17, 70.

Bona verba. Kind words: Bona verba quaeso, Ter. And. 1, 2, 33.

Words of good omen (v. omen): dicamus bona verba, Tib. 2, 2, 1: dicite suffuso ter bona verba mero, Ov. F. 2, 638.

Elegant or well-chosen expressions: quid est tam furiosum quam verborum vel optimorum atque ornatissimorum sonitus inanis, Cic. Or. 1, 12, 51: verborum bonorum cursu, id. Brut. 66, 233: omnia verba sunt alicubi optima, Quint. 10, 1, 9.

Moral sayings: non est quod contemnas bona verba et bonis cogitationibus plena praecordia, Sen. Vit. Beat. 20, 1.

Bona dicta. Polite, courteous language: hoc petere me precario a vobis jussit leniter dictis bonis, Plaut. Am. prol. 25.

Witticisms (bon-mots): flammam a sapiente facilius ore in ardente opprimi, quam bona dicta teneat, Enn. ap. Cic. Or. 2, 54, 222: dico unum ridiculum dictum de dictis melioribus quibus solebam menstruales epulas ante adipiscier, Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 22: ibo intro ad libros ut discam de dictis melioribus, id. Stich. 2, 3, 75.

Bona facta. = bene facta (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.), laudable deeds: nobilitas ambobus et majorum bona facta (sc. erant), Tac. A. 3, 40.

Bonum factum est, colloq., = bene est, bene factum est (v. bene, I. B. 2. b.): bonum factum est, ut edicta servetis mea, Plaut. Poen. prol. 16: haec imperata quae sunt pro imperio histrico, bonum hercle factum (est) pro se quisque ut meminerit, id. ib. 45.

Hence, Elliptically, introducing commands which cannot be enforced, = if you will do so, it will be well: peregrinis in senatum allectis, libellus propositus est: bonum factum, ne quis senatori novo curiam monstrare velit, Suet. Caes. 80: et Chaldaeos edicere: bonum factum, ne Vitellius ... usquam esset, id. Vit. 14: hac die Carthaginem vici: bonum factum, in Capitolium eamus, et deos supplicemus, Aur. Vict. 49; cf.: o edictum, cui adscribi non poterit bonum factum, Tert. Pud. 1.

Bona gratia. A friendly understanding: cur non videmus inter nos haec potius cum bonā Ut componantur gratiā quam cum malā? Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 17; so, per gratiam bonam abire, to part with good feelings, Plaut. Mil. 4, 3, 33.—In jest: sine bonā gratiā abire, of things cast away, Plaut Truc. 2, 7, 15.

Pleon., in the phrase bonam gratiam habere, = gr ε ) Adverb.: bonam partem = ex magnā parte, Lucr. 6, 1249.—( ζ ) Aliquem in optimam partem cognoscere, to know somebody from his most favorable side, Cic. Off. 2, 13, 46: aliquid in optimam partem accipere, to take something in good part, interpret it most favorably: Caesar mihi ignoscit quod non venerim, seseque in optimam partem id accipere dicit, id. Att. 10, 3 a, 2; id. ad Brut. 1, 2, 3: quaeso ut hoc in bonam partem accipias, id. Rosc. Am. 16, 45.

Dies bonus or bona. A day of good omen, a fortunate day (= dies laetus, faustus): tum tu igitur die bono, Aphrodisiis, addice, etc., Plaut. Poen. 2, 49: nunc dicenda bonā sunt bona verba die, Ov. F. 1, 72.

A beautiful, serene day, Sen. Vit. Beat. 22, 3.

Bonus mos. Boni mores, referring to individuals, good, decent, moral habits: nihil est amabilius quam morum similitudo bonorum, Cic. Off. 1, 17, 56: nam hic nimium morbus mores invasit bonos, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 6: domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur, Sall. C. 9, 1: propter ejus suavissimos et optimos mores, Cic. Phil. 3, 5, 13: cum per tot annos matronae optimis moribus vixerint, Liv. 34, 6, 9: mores meliores, Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 18.

Bonus mos or boni mores, in the abstract, morality, the laws, rules of morality: ei vos morigerari mos bonu'st, it is a rule of morality that you should, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 4: ex optimo more et sanctissimā disciplinā, Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69: neglegentia boni moris, Sen. Ep. 97, 1.—Jurid. t. t.: conventio, mandatum contra bonos mores, in conflict with morality, Quint. 3, 1, 57; Dig. 16, 3, 1, § 7; Gai. Inst. 3, 157 et saep.

Adverbial phrases. Bono animo esse, or bonum animum habere. To be of good cheer or courage: bono animo es! Liberabit ille te homo, Plaut. Merc 3, 1, 33; so id. Aul. 4, 10, 61; id. Mil. 4, 8, 32; id. Rud. 3, 3, 17; Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 4; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18; id. Ad. 2, 4, 20; 3, 5, 1; 4, 2, 4; 4, 5, 62; id. Phorm. 5, 8, 72: animo bono es, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; id. Am. 2, 2, 48; 5, 2, 1: bono animo es, inquit Scrofa, et fiscinam expedi, Varr. R. R. 1, 26: bono animo sint et tui et mei familiares, Cic. Fam. 6, 18, 1; 6, 10, 29: bono animo esse jubere eam consul, Liv. 39, 13, 7: habe modo bonum animum, Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 58; so id. Am. 1, 3, 47; id. Truc. 2, 6, 44; id. Aul. 2, 2, 15: habe animum bonum, id. Cas. 2, 6, 35; id. Ep. 2, 2, 1; 4, 2, 31: bonum animum habe, Liv. 45, 8, 5: clamor ortus ut bonum animum haberet, id. 8, 32, 1; so Sen. Ep. 87, 38.

Bono animo esse, or facere aliquid, to be of a good or friendly disposition, or to do with good, honest intentions: audire jubet vos imperator histricus, bonoque ut animo sedeant in subselliis qui, etc., Plaut. Poen. prol. 5: sunt enim (consules) optimo animo, summo consilio, of the best disposition, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 2: bono te animo tum populus Romanus... dicere existimavit ea quae sentiebatis, sed, etc., id. Imp. Pomp. 19, 56: quod nondum bono animo in populum Romanum viderentur, Caes. B. G. 1, 6; Quint. 7, 4, 15.

Bonus animus, good temper, patience: bonus animus in malā re dimidium mali est, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 37: vos etiam hoc animo meliore feratis, Ov. M. 9, 433.

Bono modo. = placide, with composure, moderation: si quis quid deliquerit, pro noxā bono modo vindicet, Cato, R. R. 5: haec tibi tam sunt defendenda quam moenia, mihi autem bono modo, tantum quantum videbitur, Cic. Ac. 2, 44, 137.

In a decent manner: neu quisquam prohibeto filium quin amet... quod bono fiat modo, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 62.

Jure optimo or optimo jure, with good, perfect right: te ipse jure optumo incuses licet, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 23; id. Rud. 2, 6, 53: ut jure optimo me deserere posses, Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 6; Sen. Ot. Sap. 2 (29), 2.—With pass. or intr. verb, deservedly: ne jure optimo irrideamur, Cic. Off. 1, 31, 111; cf. id. ib. 1, 42, 151; id. Marcell. 1, 4; similarly, optimo judicio, Val. Max. 2, 9, 2. As subst. bŏnus, boni, m.; of persons. In sing. or plur. orig. = bonus vir, boni viri; v. I. A. 1. a. β, supra, a morally good man. Plur.: bonis quod bene fit haud perit, Plaut. Rud. 4, 3, 2; id. Capt. 2, 2, 108; id. Trin. 2, 1, 55; id. Pers. 4, 5, 2: melius apud bonos quam apud fortunatos beneficium collocari puto, Cic. Off. 2, 20, 71: verum esse ut bonos boni diligant, quamobrem... bonis inter bonos quasi necessariam (esse) benevolentiam, id. Lael. 14, 50: diverso itinere malos a bonis loca tætra... habere, Sall. C. 52, 13; 7, 2; 52, 22: oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 52: tam bonis quam malis conduntur urbes, Sen. Ben. 4, 28, 4; so id. Vit. Beat. 15, 6; Quint. 9, 2, 76.—Rarely bŏnae, ārum, f., good women: quia omnes bonos bonasque adcurare addecet, etc., Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 41.

Sing.: malus bonum malum esse volt ut sit sui similis, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 8: nec enim cuique bono mali quidquam evenire potest, Cic. Tusc. 1, 41, 99; cf.: qui meliorem audax vocet in jus, Hor. S. 2, 5, 29.

Bonus, a man of honor. A brave man: pro quā (patriā) quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere si ei sit profuturus? Cic. Off. 1, 17, 57: libertatem quam nemo bonus nisi cum animā simul amittat, Sall. C. 33, 5: fortes creantur fortibus et bonis, Hor. C. 4, 4, 29 (opp. ignavi): famā impari boni atque ignavi erant, Sall. J. 57, 6; 53, 8; id. C. 11, 2.

A gentleman: quis enim umquam, qui paululum modo bonorum consuetudinem nosset, litteras ad se ab amico missas ... in medium protulit? Cic. Phil. 2, 4, 7.

Boni, the better (i. e. higher) classes of society. In gen. (of political sentiments, = optimates, opp. populares, seditiosi, perditi cives, etc.; so usu. in Cic.): meam causam omnes boni proprie enixeque susceperant, Cic. Sest. 16, 38: audaces homines et perditi nutu impelluntur... boni, nescio quomodo, tardiores sunt, etc., id. ib. 47, 100: ego Kal. Jan. senatum et bonos omnes legis agrariae... metu liberavi, id. Pis. 2, 4: etenim omnes boni, quantum in ipsis fuit, Caesarem occiderunt, id. Phil. 2, 13, 29; id. Fam. 5, 2, 8; 5, 21, 2; id. Sest. 2, 5; 16, 36; 48, 103; id. Planc. 35, 86; id. Mil. 2, 5; id. Off. 2. 12, 43: maledictis increpat omnes bonos, Sall. C. 21, 4; 19, 2; 33, 3; Hirt. B. G. 8, 22; so, optimi, Cic. Leg. 3, 17, 37; and, ironically, boni identified with the rich: bonorum, id est lautorum et locupletum, id. Att. 8, 1, 3.

Without reference to political views; opp. vulgus (rare): nihil ego istos moror fatuos mores quibus boni dedecorant se, Plaut. Trin. 2, 2, 22: semper in civitate quibus opes nullae sunt bonis invident, Sall. C. 37, 3: elatus est sine ullā pompā funeris, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maximā vulgi frequentiā, Nep. Att. 22, 2.—So, mĕlĭōres, um, m., one's betters: ut quaestui habeant male loqui melioribus, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 13: da locum melioribus, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 37.

Boni, bone, in addresses, as an expression of courtesy, Hor. S. 2, 2, 1; 2, 6, 51; 2, 6, 95; id. Ep. 2, 2, 37; ironice, id. S. 2, 3, 31.

Optimus quisque = quivis bonus, omnes boni. Referring to morality: esse aliquid naturā pulcrum quod optimus quisque sequeretur, every good man, Cic. Sen. 13, 43: qui ita se gerebant ut sua consilia optimo cuique probarent, optimates habebantur, id. Sest. 45, 96; id. Off. 1, 43, 154; id. Fin. 1, 7, 24; id. Sest. 54, 115; and = even the best: quare deus optimum quemque malā valetudine adficit? Sen. Prov. 4, 8.

Of the educated classes: adhibenda est quaedam reverentia adversus homines, et optimi cujusque et reliquorum, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 99; cf. id. ib. 1, 25, 85: Catilina plerisque consularibus, praeterea optumo cuique, litteras mittit, Sall. C. 34, 2: optimo cuique infesta libertas, Sen. Ot. Sap. 8, 2 (32 fin.).

Honorable, brave: optumus quisque cadere et sauciari, ceteris metus augeri, Sall. J. 92, 8.

In gen., excellent: optimus quisque facere quam dicere... malebat, Sall. C. 8, 5.—( ε ) Distributively: ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur, to the best man in each instance, Sall. C. 2, 6.—( ζ ) Referring to another superlative ( = quo quisque melior eo magis, etc.): hic aditus laudis qui semper optimo cuique maxime patuit, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 1; so id. Lael. 4, 14; id. Inv. 2, 11, 36; Sen. Vit. Beat. 18, 1.—( η ) Attributively, with a noun: optimam quamque causam, Cic. Sest. 43, 93: optima quaeque dies, Verg. G. 3, 66.