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Lewis : caput

caput căpŭt (kăp-căpud), ĭtis (abl. sing. regularly capite: capiti, Cat. 68, 124; cf. Tib. 1, 1, 72 Huschk., where the MSS., as well as Caes. German. Arat. 213, vary between the two forms), n. kindr. with Sanscr. kap-āla; Gr. κεφ-αλή ; Goth. haubith; Germ. Haupt. The head, of men and animals: oscitat in campis caput a cervice revolsum, Enn. Ann. 462 Vahl.: i lictor, conliga manus, caput obnubito, form. ap. Cic. Rab. Perd. 4, 13; cf. Liv. 1, 26, 6: tun' capite cano amas, homo nequissume? Plaut. Merc. 2, 2, 34; so, cano capite, id. As. 5, 2, 84; id. Cas. 3, 1, 4; Tib. 1, 1, 72; Pers. 1, 83 al.; cf. Tib. 1, 10, 43, and: capitis nives, Hor. C. 4, 13, 12, and Quint. 8, 6, 17 Spald.: raso capite calvus, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 306: irraso, id. Rud. 5, 2, 16: intonsum, Quint. 12, 10, 47: amputare alicui, Suet. Galb. 20; Vulg. 1 Par. 10, 9: capite operto, Cic. Sen. 10, 34, 34: obvoluto, id. Phil. 2, 31, 77 Klotz: caput aperire, id. ib.: abscindere cervicibus, id. ib. 11, 2, 5: demittere, Caes. B. G. 1, 32; Cat. 87, 8; Verg. A. 9, 437: attollere. Ov. M. 5, 503: extollere, to become bold, Cic. Planc. 13, 33: efferre, to raise one's head, to be eminent, Verg. E. 1, 25 al.—Of animals, Tib. 2, 1, 8; Hor. S. 1, 2, 89; 2, 3, 200; id. Ep. 1, 1, 76 al.

Prov.: supra caput esse, to be over one's head, i. e. to be at one's very doors, to threaten in consequence of nearness ( = imminere, impendere), Sall. C. 52, 24; Liv. 3, 17, 2; Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6; Tac. H. 4, 69; cf. Kritz ad Sall. l. l.: capita conferre (like our phrase to put heads together, i. e to confer together in secret), Liv. 2, 45, 7: ire praecipitem in lutum, per caputque pedesque, over head and ears, Cat. 17, 9: nec caput nec pedes, neither beginning nor end, good for nothing, Cic. Fam. 7, 31, 2; cf. Cato ap. Liv. Epit. lib. 50; Plaut. As. 3, 3, 139 sq.

Capita aut navia (al. navim), heads or tails, a play of the Roman youth in which a piece of money is thrown up, to see whether the figure-side (the head of Janus) or the reverse - side (a ship) will fall uppermost, Macr. S. 1, 7; Aur. Vict. Orig. 3; cf. Ov. F. 1, 239; Paul. Nol. Poëm. 38, 73.

Poet., the head, as the seat of the understanding: aliena negotia Per caput saliunt, run through the head, Hor. S. 2, 6, 34; so id. ib. 2, 3, 132; id. A. P. 300.

Ad Capita bubula, a place in Rome in the tenth region, where Augustus was born, Suet. Aug. 5.

Transf., of inanimate things. In gen., the head, top, summit, point, end, extremity (beginning or end): ulpici, Cato, R. R. 71: allii, Col. 6, 34, 1: porri, id. 11, 3, 17: papaveris, Liv. 1, 54, 6; Verg. A. 9, 437: bulborum, Plin. 19, 5, 30, § 94: caulis, id. 19, 8, 41, § 140 al.: jecoris (or jecinoris, jocinoris), Cic. Div. 2, 13, 32; Liv. 8, 9, 1; cf. id. 27, 26, 14; 41, 14, 7; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 244 Müll.: extorum, Ov. M. 15, 795; Luc. 1, 627; Plin. 11, 37, 73, § 189: pontis, tēte de pont, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 4; cf. Front. Arat. 2, 13, 5: tignorum, Caes. B. C. 2, 9: columnae, Plin. 34, 3, 7, § 13: molis, the highest point of the mole, Curt. 4, 2, 23: xysti, Plin. Ep. 2, 17, 20: porticus, id. ib. 5, 6, 19 al.

Esp., of rivers, The origin, source, spring (head): caput aquae illud est, unde aqua nascitur, Dig. 43, 20, 1, § 8; so Lucr. 5, 270; 6, 636; 6, 729; Tib. 1, 7, 24; Hor. C. 1, 1, 22; id. S. 1, 10, 37; Verg. G. 4, 319; 4, 368; Ov. M. 2, 255; Hirt. B. G. 8, 41; Liv. 1, 51, 9; 2, 38, 1; 37, 18, 6: fontium, Vitr. 8, 1; Mel. 3, 2, 8; Plin. Ep. 8, 8, 5; 10, 91, 1 al.

(more rare) The mouth, embouchure, Caes. B. G. 4, 10; Liv. 33, 41, 7; Luc. 2, 52; 3, 202.

Also of plants, sometimes the root, Cato, R. R. 36; 43; 51: vitis, id. ib. 33, 1; 95, 2; Plin. 17, 22, 35, § 195; Verg. G. 2, 355.

Also, in reference to the vine, vine branches, Col. 3, 10, 1; Cic. Sen. 15, 53.—Poet., also the summit, top of trees, Enn. ap. Gell. 13, 20, and ap. Non. 195, 24; Ov. M. 1, 567; Poët. ap. Quint. 9, 4, 90; Claud. Rapt. Pros. 3, 370.

Of mountains, rocks, Verg. A. 4, 249; 6, 360.

Of a boil that swells out, Cels. 8, 9; hence, facere, to come to a head, Plin. 22, 25, 76, § 159; 26, 12, 77, § 125; cf.: capita deorum appellabantur fasciculi facti ex verbenis, Paul. ex Fest. p. 64 Müll.

Per meton. (pars pro toto), a man, person, or animal (very freq. in prose and poetry; cf. κάρα, κεφαλή, , in the same signif.; v. Liddell and Scott and Robinson): pro capite tuo quantum dedit, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 54; id. Pers. 1, 1, 37: hoc conruptum'st caput, id. Ep. 1, 1, 85: siquidem hoc vivet caput, i. e. ego, id. Ps. 2, 4, 33; so id. Stich. 5, 5, 10; cf. id. Capt. 5, 1, 25: ridiculum caput! Ter. And. 2, 2, 34: festivum, id. Ad. 2, 3, 8: lepidum, id. ib. 5, 9, 9: carum, Verg. A. 4, 354; Hor. C. 1, 24, 2: liberum, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 32, § 79: vilia, Liv. 25, 6, 9: viliora, id. 9, 26, 22: vilissima, id. 24, 5, 13: ignota, id. 3, 7, 7; cf. id. 2, 5, 6: liberorum servorumque, id. 29, 29, 3 al.—In imprecations: istic capiti dicito, Plaut. Rud. 3, 6, 47; cf.: vae capiti tuo, id. Most. 4, 3, 10; so id. Poen. 3, 3, 32; Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 6; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 1, 4; Tib. 1, 2, 12; Verg. A. 8, 484; 11, 399 al.—With numerals: capitum Helvetiorum milia CCLXIII., souls, Caes. B. G. 1, 29; 4, 15: quot capitum vivunt, totidem studiorum Milia, Hor. S. 2, 1, 27; id. Ep. 2, 2, 189; cf. id. C. 1, 28, 20 al.; so, in capita, in distribution, to or for each person (cf. in Heb. also , for each head, poll, = for each individual, v. Robinson in h. v.), Liv. 2, 33, 11; 32, 17, 2; 34, 50, 6 al. (cf.: in singulos, id. 42, 4, 5).—Of. the poll-tax: exactio capitum, Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 5; so, capite censi, v. censeo.—Of animals, Verg. A. 3, 391; Col. 6, 5, 4 fin.; 8, 5, 4; 8, 5, 7; 8, 11, 13; Veg. Vet. 1, 18.

Trop. Life, and specif., Physical life: carum, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 33 sq.; 5, 1, 26: si capitis res siet, if it is a matter of life and death, id. Trin. 4, 2, 120: capitis periculum adire, to risk one's life, Ter. And. 4, 1, 53; id. Hec. 3, 1, 54; cf. id. Phorm. 3, 2, 6 Runnk.: capitis poena, capital punishment, Caes. B. G. 7, 71: pactum pro capite pretium, Cic. Off. 3, 29, 107: cum altero certamen honoris et dignitatis est, cum altero capitis et famae, id. ib. 1, 12, 38: cum dimicatione capitis, id. Prov. Cons. 9, 23; cf.: suo capite decernere, id. Att. 10, 9, 2; so Liv. 2, 12, 10; Cic. Fin. 5, 22, 64; Liv. 9, 5, 5: caput offerre pro patriā, Cic. Sull. 30, 84: patrium tibi crede caput, i. e. patris vitam et salutem, Ov. M. 8, 94; so, capitis accusare, to accuse of a capital crime, Nep. Paus. 2 fin.: absolvere, id. Milt. 7, 6: damnare, id. Alcib. 4, 5; id. Eum. 5, 1: tergo ac capite puniri, Liv. 3, 55, 14: caput Jovi sacrum, id. 3, 55, 7: sacratum, id. 10, 38, 3 al.; cf. Ov. M. 9, 296.

Civil or political life, acc. to the Roman idea, including the rights of liberty, citizenship, and family (libertatis, civitatis, familiae): its loss or deprivation was called deminutio or minutio capitis, acc. to the foll. jurid. distinction: capitis deminutionis tria genera sunt: maxima, media, minima; tria enim sunt, quae habemus: libertatem, civitatem, familiam. Igitur cum omnia haec amittimus (as by servitude or condemnation to death), maximam esse capitis deminutionem; cum vero amittimus civitatem (as in the interdictio aquae et ignis) libertatem retinemus, mediam esse capitis deminutionem; cum et libertas et civitas retinetur, familia tantum mutatur (as by adoption, or, in the case of women, by marriage) minimam esse capitis deminutionem constat, Dig. 4, 5, 11; cf. Just. Inst. 1, 16, 4; Cic. de Or. 1, 40, 181; 1, 54, 231; id. Tusc. 1, 29, 71; Liv. 3, 55, 14; 22, 60, 15: capitis minor, Hor. C. 3, 5, 42: servus manumissus capite non minuitur, quia nulnum caput habuit, Dig. 4, 5, 3, § 1.—Of the deminutio media, Cic. Brut. 36, 136; id. Verr. 2, 2, 40, §§ 98 and 99; id. Quint. 2, 8 al.—Of the deminutio minima, Cic. Top. 4, 18; cf. Gai Inst. 1, 162.

The first or chief person or thing, the head, leader, chief, guide (very freq.). With gen.: scelerum, an arrant knave, Plaut. Curc. 2, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 4, 7, 31; id. Mil. 2, 6, 14; id. Ps. 1, 5, 31; 4, 5, 3; id. Rud. 4, 4, 54: perjuri, id. ib. 4, 4, 55: concitandorum Graecorum, Cic. Fl. 18, 42: consilil, Liv. 8, 31, 7: conjurationis, id. 9, 26, 7: caput rei Romanae Camillus, id. 6, 3, 1; cf.: caput rerum Masinissam fuisse, id. 28, 35, 12; so id. 26, 40, 13: reipublicae, Tac. A. 1, 13: nominis Latini, heads, chiefs, Liv. 1, 52, 4: belli, id. 45, 7, 3: Suevorum, chieftribe, Tac. G. 39 fin. al.—The predicate in gen. masc.: capita conjurationis ejus virgis caesi ac securi percussi, Liv. 10, 1, 3.

With esse and dat.: ego caput fui argento reperiundo, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 138; cf.: illic est huic rei caput, author, contriver, Ter. And. 2, 6, 27; so id. Ad. 4, 2, 29 al.

Absol.: urgerent philosophorum greges, jam ab illo fonte et capite Socrate, Cic. de Or. 1, 10, 42: corpori valido caput deerat, guide, leader, Liv. 5, 46, 5: esse aliquod caput (i. e. regem) placebat, id. 1, 17, 4; cf. id. 1, 23, 4; Hor. S. 2, 5, 74 al.—Of things, head, chief, capital, etc.; thus of cities: Thebas caput fuisse totius Graeciae, head, first city, Nep. Epam. 10 fin.; so with gen., Liv. 9, 37, 12; 10, 37, 4 Weissenb. ad loc.; 23, 11, 11; 37, 18, 3 (with arx); cf.: pro capite atque arce Italiae, urbe Romanā, Liv. 22, 32, 5; and with dat.: Romam caput Latio esse, id. 8, 4, 5; and: brevi caput Italiae omni Capuam fore, id. 23, 10, 2 Drak. N. cr.—Of other localities: castellum quod caput ejus regionis erat, the head, principal place, Liv. 21, 33, 11.—Of other things: jus nigrum, quod cenae caput erat, the principal dish, Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 98; cf. id. Fin. 2, 8, 25: patrimonii publici, id. Agr. 1, 7, 21; cf. id. ib. 2, 29, 80; Liv. 6, 14, 10: caput esse artis, decere, the main or principal point, Cic. de Or. 1, 29, 132: caput esse ad beate vivendum securitatem, id. Lael. 13, 45: ad consilium de re publicā dandum caput est nosse rem publicam; ad dicendum vero probabiliter, nosse mores civitatis, id. de Or. 2, 82, 337; 1, 19, 87: litterarum, summary, purport, substance, id. Phil. 2, 31, 77: caput Epicuri, the fundamental principle, dogma, id. Ac. 2, 32, 101; cf. Quint. 3, 11, 27: rerum, the chief or central point, head, Cic. Brut. 44, 164.—So in writings, a division, section, paragraph, chapter, etc.: a primo capite legis usque ad extremum, Cic. Agr. 2, 6, 15; cf. id. ib. 2, 10, 26; id. Verr. 2, 1, 46, § 118 Ascon.; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4; Gell. 2, 15, 4 al.; Cic. de Or. 2, 55, 223; id. Fam. 7, 22 med.; Quint. 10, 7, 32: id quod caput est, Cic. Att. 1, 17, 4; so id. Fam. 3, 7, 4.—Of money, the principal sum, the capital, stock (syn. sors; opp. usurae), Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 4, § 11; 2, 3, 35, § 80 sq.; id. Att. 15, 26, 4; Liv. 6, 15, 10; 6, 35, 4; Hor. S. 1, 2, 14 al.