Close Window

Lewis : certamen

certamen, certāmen, ĭnis, n. id., a contest, struggle, strife, whether friendly or hostile, physical or intellectual; most freq. of a pugilistic contest of any kind; but also of contention in war. A contest, struggle in games or otherwise. Lit.: videmusne apud quos eorum ludorum, qui gymnici nominantur, magnus honos sit, nullum ab iis, qui in id certamen descendant, devitari dolorem? Cic. Tusc. 2, 26, 62; cf. id. de Or. 2, 78, 317: Hac celebrata tenus sancto certamina patri, Verg. A. 5, 603; cf. Ov. M. 1, 446: luctandi, Quint. 12, 2, 12: saliendi, id. 10, 3, 6: citharoedorum, id. 4, 1, 2: sacra, id. 2, 8, 7 Spald.: quinquennale triplex, musicum, gymnicum, equestre, Suet. Ner. 12; cf. id. Vit. 4; id. Dom. 4: bijugum, Verg. A. 5, 144: quadrigarum, Suet. Claud. 21: pedum, Ov. M. 12, 304: cursus, id. ib. 7, 792; 10, 560: disci, id. ib. 10, 177: Veneris, id. Am. 2, 10, 29 et saep.

Meton., poet., the object contended for, the prize, Ov. M. 13, 129: pecoris magistris Velocis jaculi certamina ponit in ulmo, Verg. G. 2, 530 Heyne.

Trop., a rivalry, contest, struggle, emulation, etc.: certamen honestum (Stoicorum et Peripateticorum), Cic. Fin. 2, 21, 68: est mihi tecum pro aris et focis certamen, id. N. D. 3, 40, 94: est alicui certamen cum aliquo de principatu, Nep. Them. 6, 3: certamen honoris et gloriae. Cic. Lael. 10, 34; cf. id. Off. 1, 12, 38; Sall. J. 41, 2; Quint. 10, 5, 5: bona ratio cum perditā confligit. In ejus modi certamine ac proelio, Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 25: pugna forensium certaminum, id. 5, 12, 22: eloquentiae inter juvenes, Quint. 2, 17, 8: verborum linguaeque, Liv. 10, 22, 6: laboris ac periculi, id. 28, 19, 14: amicitiae, benevolentiae, id. 37, 53, 7: bonae artis ac virtutis, id. 37, 54, 19: irarum, id. 1, 7, 2; cf. id. 3, 39, 3: conferendi (pecuniam), id. 4, 60, 8: patrum animos certamen regni ac cupido versabat, id. 1, 17, 1; cf. id. 21, 31, 6: leti (inter mulieres Indas), Prop. 3 (4), 13, 19: diu magnum inter mortales certamen fuit, vine corporis an virtute animi, etc., Sall. C. 1, 5; cf. Tib. 4, 1, 37.—Rarely with gen. of adversary: si in virtutis certamen venerint ( = cum virtute), Cic. Fin. 5, 24, 71 Madv. ad loc.—Poet.: mite vini, a drinking bout, Tib. 3, 6, 11.—Also poet.: certamina ponere, syn. with certamina instituere = ἀγῶνα προτιθέναι, to order, arrange a fight or contest, Verg. A. 5, 66; 8, 639; cf. id. G. 2, 530 Wagn.—Of inanimate things: Arboribusque datumst variis exinde per auras Crescendi magnum inmissis certamen habenis, Lucr. 5, 787.

Esp., a military strife, battle, engagement, contest, fight, combat. Subject. (diff. from the objective; cf.: proeliam, pugna, bellum, etc.): horrida Romuleum certamina pango duellum, Enn. Ann. 1, 1; 1, 476; 2, 6; 5, 1295; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 18, 2; Lucr. 4, 844; Ov. M. 12, 180; Liv. 36, 19, 13: aeterno certamine proelia pugnasque edere, Lucr. 2, 117: fit proelium acri certamine, Hirt. B. G. 8, 28; cf.: proelii certamen, id. B. Alex. 16: certamine, with zeal, emulously, earnestly, Verg. A. 5, 197; Curt. 9, 4; Sil. 10, 536; cf.: nec magni certaminis ea dimicatio fuit, not severe, Liv. 21, 60, 7.

Object., = proelium, pugna, etc.: vario certamine pugnatum est, Caes. B. C. 1, 46: erat in celeritate omne positum certamen, utri, etc., id. ib. 1, 70: bella atque certamina, Sall. C. 33, 5: ubi res ad certamen venit, id. J. 13, 4: in certamine ipso, Liv. 2, 44, 11: navalia, a naval engagement, sea-fight, id. 31, 14, 4: classicum, Vell. 2, 85, 2: saevit medio in certamine Mavors, Verg. A. 8, 700 et saep.—Hence. In the postAug. histt. for war in gen., Flor. 1, 20; Eutr. 1, 16; Just. 7, 2, 6; 7, 6, 6.