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Lewis : circa

circa, circā, a later access. form for circum; not freq. before the Aug. per., esp. in Livy and Quintilian [acc. to Klotz, circa = circum ea; cf: antea, interea, postea, praeterea, etc.]. Adv. ( = circum, I. B.) Around, round about, all around, in the environs or neighborhood: gramen erat circa, Ov. M. 3, 411: ripaeque lacusque Responsant circa, Verg. A. 12, 757: at circa gravibus pensis affixa puella... remittat opus, Tib. 1, 3, 87: circaque quā tumor est, Cels. 5, 28, 3; 5, 28, 4: fluvius ab tergo; ante circaque velut ripa praeceps oram ejus omnem cingebat, Liv. 27, 18, 5; 28, 33, 2: circa Padus amnis, id. 21, 43, 4 Weissenb. ad loc.: caligo, quam circa umidi effuderant montes, Curt. 4, 12, 20: alibi quam Romao circaque, Plin. 26, 1, 1, § 1; Quint. 12, prooem. § 2; Tac. A. 2, 11.

Circa esse, to be in the region around, in the neighborhood: ex montibus qui circa sunt, Liv. 1, 4, 6: Tarquinium moribundum cum qui circa erant excepissent, id. 1, 41, 1: sed non passi sunt ii, qui circa erant, Nep. Eum. 10, 4: eversa est turris quodque circa muri erat, Liv. 34, 29, 6: Corinthus et quae circa est regio, Plin. 24, 9, 42, § 69; Quint. 10, 7, 16. —Also freq. without esse, in connection with a subst.: multarum circa civitatum irritatis animis, the towns lying around, Liv. 1, 17, 4; 9, 2, 1; 27, 30, 3; 29, 29, 2; 42, 64, 2: angulus muri erat in planiorem patentioremque quam cetera circa vallem vergens ( = cetera loca quae circa erant), id. 21, 7, 5: corpora multa virūm circa, Verg. A. 7, 535; Plin. 3, 17, 21, § 124.

Strengthened: undique circa and circa omnis ( = circum), round about, all around: frumento undique circa ex agris convecto. Liv. 42, 56, 8; 23, 19, 8; nam et circa omnia defecerunt, id. 9, 23, 10: cum tam procul Romani unica spes, circa omnia hostium essent, id. 21, 11, 12; cf. id. 9, 2, 7 Drak.: exhausto circa omni agro, id. 31, 38, 1; 24, 3, 3; Val. Fl. 8, 2; Flor. 1, 18, 12 Duker; Quint. 9, 2, 45.

Prep. with acc. In space. ( = circum, II. B.) Prop., in the region which surrounds, about, around, on the sides of: quam (Hennam) circa lacus lucique sunt plurimi atque laetissimi flores omni tempore anni, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 48, § 107: noctu ligna contulerunt circa casam eam, in quā quiescebat, Nep. Alcib. 10, 4: circa flumina et lacus frequens nebula est, Sen. Q. N. 5, 3, 1: circa equum Alexandri, Curt. 4, 15, 26: illi robur et aes triplex Circa pectus erat, Hor. C. 1, 3, 10; id. S. 2, 6, 34: quem circa tigres jacent, Ov. M. 3, 668.

( = circum, II. C.) Into... around, to... round about, etc. (first in Livy): Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit, Liv. 1, 9, 2: legatis circa duodecim populos missis, id. 4, 23, 5; 28, 26, 11: circa domos ire, id. 26, 13, 1; 25, 9, 2; 39, 18, 2; 29, 22, 3: circa civitates missi legati, id. 21, 49, 7 Weissenb.; 31, 3, 5; Plin. 7, 37, 37, § 123; Suet. Aug. 49; id. Ner. 28: litteris circa praefectos dimissis, Liv. 42, 51, 1: custodes circa omnes portas missi, id. 28, 26, 11; 26, 13, 1.

( = circum, II. D.) With the prevailing idea of neighborhood, vicinity, in the region of, near to, near by: Capuam et urbis circa Capuam occupare, Cic. Agr. 1, 7, 22: circa Liternum posuit castra, in the neighborhood of, Liv. 23, 35, 6: tabernae erant circa forum, Quint. 6, 3, 38: circa Armeniae montes, Curt. 5, 1, 13: Acesinen amnem, Plin. 12, 5, 11, § 23: domum auream, Suet. Ner. 38: sacrificantem, id. Claud. 36.

As a less definite designation of place for in: Orestis liberi sedem cepere circa Lesbum insulam, Vell. 1, 2, 5: circa Mesopotamiam subsistere, Curt. 4, 9, 1: quod circa Syriam nascitur, Plin. 19, 3, 16, § 46; Quint. prooem. § 20: initia statim primi libri, id. 1, 5, 44; cf. finem, id. 4, 3, 5: virentes campos, Hor. C. 2, 5, 5: cum amor saeviet circa jecur, id. ib. 1, 25, 15 (cf. Petr. 17, 8: dolor saevit in praecordiis). So esp. freq. in medic. lang.: circa faciem, nares, aures, labra, Cels. 5, 28, 2; 5, 2, 8.—So in Livy, with names of places, approaching the more general use of later writers, v. infra, C.: quadriduum circa rupem consumptum, Liv. 21, 37, 3: compositis circa Opuntem rebus, id. 28, 7, 9: iisdem diebus circa Chalcidem Thoas... eandem fortunam habuit, id. 35, 37, 5 Weissenb. ad loc.; cf.: multos circa unam rem ambitus fecerim, id. 27, 27, 12 Weissenb. ad loc.

( = circum, II. E.) In respect to persons who surround one (as attendants, friends, adherents, etc.), around, about: multa sibi opus esse, multa canibus (sarcast. for indagatoribus) suis, quos circa se haberet, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 48, § 126: ex iis trecentos juvenes inermes circa se habebat, Liv. 29, 1, 2: omnes, Suet. Aug. 48; id. Calig. 43: circa regem erat et Phrygum turba, Curt. 3, 1, 17: e spadonibus, qui circa reginam erant, id. 4, 10, 25: omne sed officium circa te semper obibat turba tui sexūs, Mart. 1, 91, 3: quod omnes circa te similes tui effecisti, Plin. Pan. 83, 3.—In the language of the imperial court: circa latus alicujus agere, to wait on, altend, Dig. 27, 1, 30.—Hence also without a verb: circa aliquem, = οἱ περί τινα, the attendants, companions of a person: omnibus vero circa eum gratuito aut levi fenore obstrictis, Suet. Caes. 27; id. Dom. 9; cf. Liv. 21, 49, 7 Drak.

(Peculiar to the form circa). In time, designating nearness, proximity to a definite point of time, about (first in Livy; cf. circiter): postero die circa eandem horam in eundem locum rex copias admovit, Liv. 42, 57, 10: circa eum mensem, Plin. 9, 18, 33, § 69: lucis ortum, Curt. 5, 3, 7: lucem, Suet. Oth. 11: mediam noctem, id. Claud. 2: vernum aequinoctium, Col. 5, 6, 19: Kalendas et Idus Octobr., id. 5, 10, 8, 5, 10, 12; 5, 12, 2 al.; Plin. Ep. 1, 7, 4; Pall. 2, 4; 2, 7 al.—With definite numbers: septimum diem, Cels. 2, 6: undecimam horam, Suet. Caes. 88: lustra decem, Hor. C. 4, 1, 6; Scrib. 227.—With general designations of time: tempora illa, Quint. 11, 3, 143: tempora Peloponnesia, id. 12, 10, 4: Murenae Cepionisque conjurationis tempus, Vell. 2, 93, 1: Magni Pompeii aetatem, Plin. 33, 12, 55, § 156: mortem, id. 11, 37, 73, § 189: initia imperii, Suet. Claud. 7.—And in the designation of periods of time by persons who belonged to them (cf. ante): circa Demetrium Phalerea, about the time of Demetrius Phalereus, Quint. 2, 4, 41 Spald.: Tisiam et Coraca, id. 2, 17, 7: Philippum, id. 12, 10, 6: Ciceronem, Sen. Contr. 1 praef.: Attium, Vell. 1, 17, 1.

In numerical designations, about, nearly, almost (first in Livy for the usual ad or circiter): ea fuere oppida circa septuaginta, Liv. 45, 34, 6: quingentos Romanorum, id. 27, 42, 8: decem milia Persarum, Curt. 4, 6, 30: sestertium vicies, Suet. Claud. 6: quartum milliarium, id. Ner. 48: selibram, Cels. 4, 19: singulas heminas, id. 7, 15.

(Also peculiar to the form circa, and only in post-Aug. prose; esp. freq. in Quint., occurring more than seventy times.) Trop. for the designation of an object about which, as if it were a centre, any thing moves, is done, etc., around, about, in, in respect to, etc.; depending upon substt., adjj., or verbs. Upon substantives: circa eosdem sensus certamen atque aemulatio, Quint. 10, 5, 5: circa S litteram deliciae, id. 1, 11, 6: verba dissensio, id. 3, 11, 5: memoriam suam vanitas atque jactatio, id. 11, 2, 22: hoc opiniones, id. 2, 15, 1; Plin 8, 16, 19, § 48: quem pugna est, Quint. 8, 6, 1; 7, 1, 15: voces inani studio, id. 8, prooem § 18 et saep: rura sermo, Plin. 18, 1, 1, § 5: classicum brevis et expeditus labor, Plin. Ep 3, 9, 13: hospitia nullum fastidium, id. Pan. 20, 3: publica circa bonas artes socordia, Tac. A. 11, 15: principem novo exemplo, i. e. in principe, Suet. Claud. 14.

Upon adjectives: non circa plurium artium species praestantem, sed in omnibus eminentissimum, Quint. 12, 10, 12: jus nostrum attentior, id. 4, 5, 21: studia mentis erectae, id. 1, 3, 10: lites raras ridiculi, id. 7, 1, 43: praecepta utiles sententiae, id. 10, 1, 52; 6, 1, 42 al.: corporis curam morosior, Suet. Caes. 45: victum indifferens, id. ib. 53: deos ac religiones neglegentior, id. Tib. 69: administrationem imperii vacuus, id. Dom. 3 al.: summa scelera distentum, Tac. A. 16, 8 fin.: adfectationem Germanicae originis ultro ambitiosi, id. G. 28: excessus otiosus, id. Or. 22: se animati, Just. 14, 1, 3 al.

Upon verbs facetum quoque non tantum circa ridicula opinor consistere, Quint. 6, 3, 19: hoc disputatum est, id. 1, 5, 34: priores erratur, id. 2, 5, 26: formas litterarum haerere, id. 1, 1, 21, cf. id. 5, 10, 114; Suet. Aug. 71. res tenues morari, Quint 1, 1, 35: consilium elegendi successoris in duas factiones scindebantur, Tac. H. 1, 13: Medeam, Thyestem (tragoedias) tempus consumas, id. Or. 3: successorem omnia ordinari, Suet. Claud. 45: ceremonias, item circa omnium ordinum statum quaedam correxit, id. ib. 22.!*? Circa very rarely follows its case: quem circa, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 48, § 107; Ov. A. A. 2, 577; id. .3, 668; cf. circum, II. fin.