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Lewis : coepio

coepio, coepĭo, coepi, coeptum, 3 (the tempp. press. only a few times in the ante-class. period, and coepturus, Liv. 30, 5, 6; 42, 47, 3; Quint. 10, 1, 46; Plin. 16, 25, 41, § 98; Suet. Calig. 46; the tempp. perff., both in act. and pass. form, very freq.; a trisyl. coëpit, Lucr. 4, 619 Lachm. N. cr.), v. a. and n. contr. from co-ăpio = apo; hence coapias for coepias in Cod. Ambros.; Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 46; v. in the foll., and cf. Lachm. ad Lucr. 2, p. 248, lit. to lay hold of something on different sides, to lay hold of; hence of an action, to begin, commence, undertake ( = incipio, which is the class. pres.). Act. Tempp. press.: coepiam seditiosa verba loqui, Cato ap. Paul. ex Fest. p. 59, 10 Müll. lubido extemplo coepere est convivium, Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 41: mage si exigere coepias, id. Trin. 4, 3, 46 Ritschl N. cr.: neque pugnas neque ego lites coepio, id. Men. 5, 5, 57: ubi nihil habeat, alium quaestum coepiat, id. Truc. 2, 1, 23: mane coepiam, Caecil. ap. Non. p. 89, 17: non Prius olfecissem, quam ille quicquam coeperet, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 43 Fleck.; cf. Neue, Formenl. 2, 616: se Hasdrubalem adgressurum, ceterum non ante coepturum, quam, etc., Liv. 30, 5, 6: nos rite coepturi ab Homero videmur, Quint. 10, 1, 46: nemine opinante quidnam coepturus esset, Suet. Calig. 46.

Tempp. perff. act.; the object usu. an inf.; so always in Cic. and Cæs.; mostly an inf. act.; rarely pass.; sometimes the acc. of a noun or pronoun. With inf. act.: cum ver esse coeperat, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 10, § 27; Ov. A. A. 1, 615 sq.: discere coepit, Enn. Ann. ap. Fest. s. v. sam, p. 325, 24 Müll. (v. 228 Vahl.): amare coepi, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 20: oppugnare, Caes. B. G. 2, 6: ire foras coeperunt, Lucr. 4, 531: coeperit inter se vesci, etc., id. 5, 72 et saep.

With inf. pass. (in the poets and histt.): per terrarum orbem fruges coepisse creari, Lucr. 2, 614: alia hujuscemodi fieri coepere, Sall. C. 51, 40: cum Lacedaemoniis pugnari coepit, Nep. Epam. 10, 3; so, urbanus haberi, Hor. Ep. 1, 15, 27: verti, id. ib. 2, 1, 149: institui, id. A. P. 21: moveri, Ov. M. 3, 106; Suet. Tib. 75: expleri, id. Caes. 26: eligi, Tac. H. 1, 16: occidi, id. ib. 3, 34: prohiberi, Just. 14, 5, 9: coeptum est fieri, Auct. B. Afr. 69; 78; Liv. 24, 49, 4; 25, 34, 13; 27, 42, 5.

With acc. (rare in prose; cf. B. infra): coepit cursum, Att. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 22, 45: novam mapalibus urbem, Sil. 15, 420: cur non ego id perpetrem, quod coepi? Plaut. Cas. 3, 5, 57: si quicquam hodie hic turbae coeperis, Ter. Eun. 4, 7, 30: quae coeperamus, Quint. 6, prooem. 15: hujuscemodi orationem, Tac. A. 4. 37: (Sabinus) obsidium coepit per praesidia, id. ib. 4, 39.

Absol.: nam primum ... Non coepisse fuit: coepta expugnare secundum est, Ov. M. 9, 619: dimidium facti, qui coepit, habet, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 40: Titus Livius hexametri exordio coepit, Quint. 9, 4, 74; cf. id. 9, 4, 117: si coepisset a toto corpore, id. 9, 4, 23; cf. id. 7, 1, 2; 8, 6, 50: pro vallo castrorum ita coepit (sc. dicere), Tac. H. 1, 36: Civilis ita coepit, id. ib. 5, 26; id. A. 1, 41; 2, 37.—( ε ) With an ellipsis for dicere coepi, to begin to speak: ita coepit tyrannus, Liv. 34, 31, 1; 39, 15, 2: coram data copia fandi, Maximus Ilioneus placido sic pectore coepit, Verg. A. 1, 521; 6, 372: tum ita coepit: numquam mihi, etc., Liv. 28, 27, 1; Tac. A. 1, 41 fin.: ad hunc modum coepit, id. ib. 2, 37; id. H. 1, 36 fin.; Phaedr. 4, 23, 2.

Pass. in the tempp. perff. and with the inf. pass. (cf. Zumpt, Gram, § 221): jure coepta appellari est Canis, Plaut. Men. 5, 1, 18: ante petitam esse pecuniam, quam esset coepta deberi, Cic. de Or. 1, 37, 168; id. Div. 2, 2, 7; id. Brut. 67, 236; 88, 301; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, § 209; 2, 5, 4, § 9; id. Fam. 13, 29, 1; id. Att. 3, 15, 5; 6, 1, 3; Liv. 1, 57, 3; 2, 1, 4; 3, 38, 2; 9, 7, 7: quae (res) inter eos agi coeptae, neque perfectae essent, Caes. B. G. 1, 47; 4, 18: bello premi sunt coepti, Nep. Timoth. 3, 1; Cat. 95, 2.—With inf. act.: mitescere discordiae intestinae coeptae, Liv. 5, 17, 10; cf. Weissenb. ad loc.

Hence, coeptus, a, um, Part., begun, commenced, undertaken. consilium fraude coeptum, Liv. 35, 36, 5: coeptum atque patratum bellum foret, Sall. J. 21, 2: jussis Carmina coepta tuis, Verg. E. 8, 12; so, coepti fiducia belli, id. A. 2, 162; Liv. 35, 23, 1: amor, Ov. H. 17, 189: iter, id. F. 1, 188: arma, Tac. H. 2, 6; 4, 61: coeptam deinde omissam actionem repetere, id. ib. 4,44: dies, id. A. 4, 25 (cf. infra II.): luce, id. ib. 1, 65; 15, 55: nocte, id. ib. 2, 13: hieme, id. ib. 12, 31. —Hence, subst.: coeptum, i, n., a work begun, a beginning, undertaking (most freq. after the Aug. per. and in the plur.; perh. never in Cic.; also not in Hor.): ut repetam coeptum pertexere dictis, Lucr. 1, 418: nec taedia coepti Ulla mei capiam, Ov. M. 9, 616: coepti paenitentia, Quint. 12, 5, 3; Suet. Oth. 5: manus ultima coepto Defuit, Ov. Tr. 2, 555: ne audaci coepto deessent; Liv. 42, 59, 7; cf. Verg. G. 1, 40: feroci, Sil. 11, 202.—With adv.: bene coepto, Liv. 45, 15, 7: bene coepta, Vell. 2, 14; and: temere coepta, Liv. 36, 15, 2.—Plur.: coeptis meis, Ov. M. 1, 2: nostris, id. ib. 9, 486: immanibus, Verg. A. 4, 642 al.—Without adj., Ov. M. 8, 67; 8, 463; Liv. 23, 35, 16; 23, 41, 4; 24, 13, 4; Tac. H. 2, 85; 3, 52; Suet. Ner. 34; id. Vesp. 6 et saep.

Neutr., to begin, take a beginning, commence, originate, arise (most freq. since the Aug. per.; not in Cic.): neve inde navis incohandae exordium coepisset, Enn. ap. Auct. Her. 2, 22, 34 (Trag. Rel. v. 282 Vahl.): sic odium coepit glandis, Lucr. 5, 1416: post, ubi silentium coepit... verba facit, etc., Sall. J. 33, 4: cum primum deditio coepit, id. ib. 62, 7: ubi dies coepit, id. ib. 91, 4 (cf. supra, I. 2. δ ): vere coepturo, Plin. 16, 25, 41, § 98: postquam apud Cadmiam pugna coepit, Nep. Epam. 10, 3; so, pugna, Liv. 2, 6, 10; Quint. 2, 4, 42; 9, 4, 50; cf. id. 9, 4, 55: quando coeperit haec ars, id. 2, 17, 8: obsidium coepit per praesidia, Tac. A. 4, 49: a quo jurgium coepit, Quint. 5, 10, 72; so with ab, Tac. H. 2, 47; and with ex, id. A. 15, 54 and 68; cf.: quibus, uti mihi, ex virtute nobilitas coepit, Sall. J. 85, 17.